Habitat and Ecology
E. bruneus inhabits rocky reefs and mud bottoms (Heemstra and Randall 1993). Adults can be found in depths of 20 to 200 m, while juveniles occur in shallow water (Heemstra and Randall 1993). The maximum size ofE. bruneus recorded is 136 cm TL (38 kg) (Jason Schratwieser, IGFA World Records, pers. comm. 12 Jan 2007).
According to fishermen, does not take baits readily during summer and the gonads of E. bruneus are empty, indicating a spent (post-reproductive) condition (Chan 1968).
No information is available on sexual pattern, fecundity or recruitment.
From 20 to 200 meters.
Habitat: reef-associated. Inhabits rocky reefs; also found on muddy grounds. Juveniles occur in shallow waters. Commercially cultured in Japan.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Epinephelus bruneus
Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.
See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.
Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.
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Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Epinephelus bruneus
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- 2007Vulnerable (VU)
Little information is currently available for this species across most of its range, although it has been previously abundant in regional fisheries. The species is occasionally seen in local Hong Kong markets (Sadovy Y, pers. comm.).
E. bruneus was one of the most abundant species in Hong Kong waters in 1968 (Chan 1968). E. bruneus was available in markets throughout the year, with highest abundance from October to May (Chan 1968). Wilson (2003) frequently observed E. bruneus on Hong Kong artificial reefs. Sadovy and Cornish (2000) later described E. bruneus as one of the rarest grouper in Hong Kong, especially for fish larger than 50 cm TL.
Wilson (2003) stated that E. bruneus could be found on artificial reefs frequently. Sadovy and Cornish (2000) occasionally recorded E. bruneus during underwater observations (one 30 cm TL fish in a shallow coral area at about 3 m and a larger individual around large boulders at depth of 15 m).
No fishery-dependent data is available. No data are available on the sex composition or length-age relationship.
A more up-to-date stock assessment is crucial in determining abundance and population trends. More information on its stock, biology, age-and-growth and management practices is recommended.
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
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