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BiologyInhabit the outer continental shelf, on mud or sand bottoms (Ref. 27436). Frequently found buried in substrate (Ref. 27436). Feed on benthic invertebrates and fishes. Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 4.9-5.9 cm long and 4.0-5.0 cm wide (Ref. 41300). 6-9 eggs are produced annually (Ref. 41300). Although the pectoral fins may be used to prepare a variety of dishes, they are generally considered not saleable, and incidental catches are usually discarded (Ref. 27436). Occasionally used to produce mink feed and fertilizer (Ref. 27436). Minimum depth reported from Ref. 6793.