Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: porkfish (English), burro (Espanol)
 
Anisotremus taeniatus Gill, 1861


Panamic porkfish



Body deep, compressed, back high; head short, blunt; mouth small, low, ~ horizontal, lips fleshy; inside mouth not red; teeth in bands on jaws, outer ones larger, conical, none on center roof of mouth; a pair of conspicuous pores plus a central groove under the chin; preopercle finely serrated; dorsal continuous but deeply notched, 4th  spine longest, XII, 15-17; anal III, 9-10, 2nd  spine long and thick;  pectoral fins long, reaching anal origin; tail straight to slightly concave; scales moderate to large, rough, over entire body and head except front of snout, lips and chin, on membranes between dorsal and anal soft rays; lines of scales above lateral line in oblique rows above lateral line ; lateral-line scales 49-57.


Bright yellow with dark-edged blue stripes on side; a pair of blackish bars anteriorly, one through eye and another immediately behind head; juveniles with yellow head and anterodorsal region of body, a dark brown midlateral stripe, and large black spot on base of tail fin.

Size: to 30 cm.

Habitat: generally seen in small aggregations on rocky reefs, but not particularly common.

Depth: 5-25 m.

Southern Baja and the lower Gulf of California to northern Peru, the Revillagigedos, Cocos and Malpelo.
   
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Biology

Found over hard bottoms of shallow coastal waters. Also caught with trammel nets and harpoons. Considered a valuable food-fish.
  • McKay, R.J. and M. Schneider 1995 Haemulidae. Burros, corocoros, chulas, gallinazos, roncos. p. 1136-1173. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9114)
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from southern Baja California and the southeastern mouth of the Gulf of California, to the northern tip of Peru. It is also found at the Cocos and Malpelo Islands.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
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Eastern Pacific.
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Eastern Pacific: Mexico to the northern tip of Peru.
  • McKay, R.J. and M. Schneider 1995 Haemulidae. Burros, corocoros, chulas, gallinazos, roncos. p. 1136-1173. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9114)
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 5 (S) - 25 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 30.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 300 mm ---
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Max. size

31.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763))
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Diagnostic Description

Body compressed and deep (depth contained 1.9 to 2.3 times in standard length); mouth small and terminal with thick fleshy lips; dorsal fin with 12 spines and 15 to 17 soft rays (XII, 15-17); pectoral fins equal to or shorter than head, reaching origin of anal fin; lateral line scales 49 to 57; scale series above lateral line oblique; back golden yellow; flanks with 6 bright blue longitudinal stripes bordered with dark blue; a dark (brown or black) bar from the nape and across the eye; a similar bar from origin of dorsal fin to base of pectoral fin (Ref. 55763).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This demersal species can be found near deep rocky walls and reefs to depths of 25m, and in massive corals in Gulf of Chiriqui, Panama (Dominici-Arosemena and Wolff, 2006). Some individuals can be found accidentally in estuaries and coastal lagoons (Cooke, 1992).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

demersal; marine
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Depth range based on 13 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.31 - 54
  Temperature range (°C): 20.583 - 20.583
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.441 - 0.441
  Salinity (PPS): 34.246 - 34.246
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.165 - 5.165
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.472 - 0.472
  Silicate (umol/l): 4.140 - 4.140

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.31 - 54
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Near Bottom, Bottom, Bottom + water column

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Reef only, Rocks, Corals, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom)

FishBase Habitat: Demersal
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Trophic Strategy

Found over hard bottoms of shallow coastal waters. Also caught with trammel nets and harpoons. Carnivore (Ref. 57615).
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic worms, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves, octopus/squid/cuttlefish
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Anisotremus taeniatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

CTTTATCTAGTATTTGGTGCTTGGGCTGGGATAGTAGGAACAGCCCTG---AGCCTGCTTATTCGAGCAGAGCTCAGTCAACCGGGCGCCCTCCTCGGAGAC---GACCAGATTTATAATGTAATTGTTACCGCACATGCGTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTCTAATCGGAGGGTTCGGTAACTGACTTGTCCCCCTAATG---ATCGGGGCCCCCGATATGGCATTCCCCCGAATAAACAATATGAGCTTCTGGCTCCTCCCACCTTCCTTCCTTCTCCTCCTTGCCTCCTCAGGCGTAGAAGCTGGAGCCGGCACCGGATGAACAGTTTATCCTCCCTTAGCCGGAAATCTAGCGCATGCCGGGGCATCCGTTGACCTA---ACAATTTTCTCCCTCCACTTAGCAGGTGTTTCCTCAATTCTTGGGGCAATTAACTTCATCACAACAATTATCAATATGAAACCTCCTGCCATCTCCCAGTATCAAACCCCCCTATTTGTATGGTCCGTTCTGGTTACGGCCGTTCTTCTTCTGCTTTCCCTTCCAGTCCTTGCGGCT---GGTATTACAATACTTCTCACAGACCGAAATCTGAACACCACCTTCTTCGACCCCGCTGGAGGAGGTGACCCCATTCTCTACCAACACCTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Anisotremus taeniatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 10
Specimens with Barcodes: 14
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Allen, G., Robertson, R., Zapata, F. & Barraza, E.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in the Eastern Pacific, and locally common in at least part of its range. There are no known major threats to this species, and no current indication of population decline. It is listed as Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
This species is locally common in at least parts of its range. It is very common on rocky reefs of islands in Gulf of Fonseca and Los Cobanos, El Salvador. A survey made in Gulf Dulce, Costa Rica, showed a mean density of 0.001 ind/ m2 for this species (Figueroa 2001). Although it was found in surveys at Gulf of Chiriqui, its density was low (Dominici-Arosemena and Wolff, 2006).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species.
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species distribution falls partially into a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Pacific region (WDPA 2006).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: medium; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
  • McKay, R.J. and M. Schneider 1995 Haemulidae. Burros, corocoros, chulas, gallinazos, roncos. p. 1136-1173. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9114)
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