Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: toadfish (English), pez-perro (Espanol), sapo (Espanol)
 
Batrachoides walkeri Collette & Russo, 1981

Walker's toadfish



Body elongate, depressed at front, compressed at rear; head narrow, depressed; eyes very small (2.8% of SL), 2-3 short, stubby tentacles over each one; no filaments between eyes or on snout; mouth strongly oblique, lower jaw projecting; teeth pointed; 2 solid spines on upper opercle and 2 below and behind those; dorsal fin with 3 solid spines, spiny and soft parts joined; dorsal rays III, 28; anal 25 rays; pectoral 19-20 rays; dorsal and anal fins not joined to tail fin; 2 lateral lines, no light organs; body covered with small imbedded scales, none on head and breast;  scales on nape extend only a little forwards, to halfway between dorsal fin and lateral line canal on rear of head.


Body medium dark, head paler; ~ 6 dark blotches of varying sizes along top of back and tail base, some extending onto base of dorsal fin; fins pale, dorsal and anal with dark margins.

Size: 21 cm.

Habitat: soft bottoms.

Depth: 3-30 m.

The Gulf of Panama.
   
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is known only from the holotype taken once from Panama Bay in 1953.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continental TEP endemic, Panamic province endemic, Continent, Continent only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
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Eastern Pacific.
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Eastern Central Pacific: known from the holotype taken from Panama Bay, Panama.
  • Collette, B.B. 1995 Batrachoididae. Peje-sapos, sapos. p. 910-918. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9277)
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 3 (S) - 30 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 21.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 170 mm SL
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Max. size

17.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9277))
  • Collette, B.B. 1995 Batrachoididae. Peje-sapos, sapos. p. 910-918. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9277)
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Type Information

Holotype for Batrachoides walkeri
Catalog Number: USNM 220128
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Collector(s): R. Rosenblatt
Year Collected: 1953
Locality: Panama: Bay of Panama Between Panama City and Punta Gorda., Panama, Pacific
Depth (m): 4 to 27
  • Holotype:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This demersal species presumably inhabits soft substrate, although there is no habitat information listed with the type description (Collette and Russo 1981).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

demersal; marine
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Soft bottom only, Mud, Sand & gravel

FishBase Habitat: Demersal
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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves, octopus/squid/cuttlefish, sea-stars/cucumbers/urchins, bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Benthic, No pelagic larva, No pelagic phase
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Collette, B., Acero, A. & Betancur, R.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is known only from the holotype that was collected in 1953. Little is known about this species' distribution, population, habitat requirements, or threats. It is listed as Data Deficient.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
This species is presumably very rare since it is only known from a single specimen despite numerous collections in the type locality. Extensive collections in Panama Bay and elsewhere in the Eastern Pacific have failed to record this species. This species may be extinct.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
This restricted range and shallow-water species is likely threatened by habitat loss from the removal of mangrove forests around Panama Bay, coastal development and pollution.
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Data deficient (DD)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures for this species. More research is needed on this species' distribution, population, habitat requirements, ecology and threats in order to determine its conservation status.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest
  • Collette, B.B. 1995 Batrachoididae. Peje-sapos, sapos. p. 910-918. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9277)
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