- Fernholm, B. 1998 Hagfish systematics. p. 33-44. In J.M. Jørgensen, J.P. Lomholt, R.E. Weber and H. Malte (eds.) The biology of hagfishes. Chapman & Hall, London. 578 p. (Ref. 31276) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=31276&speccode=54060
- Gon, O. and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) 1990 Fishes of the Southern Ocean. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, R.S.A. 462 p. http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5152
Habitat and Ecology
The biology of this species is unknown and its copulatory organ is absent. The gonads of hagfishes are situated in the peritoneal cavity. The ovary is found in the anterior portion of the gonad, and the testis is found in the posterior part. The animal becomes female if the cranial part of the gonad develops or male if the caudal part undergoes differentiation. If none develops, then the animal becomes sterile. If both anterior and posterior parts develop, then the animal becomes a functional hermaphrodite. However, hermaphroditism being characterised as functional needs to be validated by more reproduction studies (Patzner 1998).
From 10 to 100 meters.
- Mincarone, M.M. and J.M.R. Soto 2001 First record of southern hagfish Myxine australis (Myxinidae) in Brazilian waters. Mare Magnum 1(2):125-127. (Ref. 56499) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=56499&speccode=6946
Life History and Behavior
- Patzner, R.A. 1998 Gonads and reproduction in hagfishes. p. 378-395. In J.M. Jørgensen, J.P. Lomholt, R.E. Weber and H. Malte (eds.) The biology of hagfishes. Chapman & Hall, London. 578 p. (Ref. 51361) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=51361&speccode=54060
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Myxine australis
There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank. Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species. See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen. Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.
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Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Myxine australis
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
Only two specimens have been collected from Brazil, and bottom trawling is occurring throughout this species known depth and distribution range. However, more information is needed to determine this species distribution, population status, and impact of trawling within Brazil. In Brazil it therefore has a regional assessment of Data Deficient.
- IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006. http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=57073
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
- Fernholm, B. 1990 Myxinidae. p. 77-78. In O. Gon and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Fishes of the Southern Ocean. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. 462 p. (Ref. 7492) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=7492&speccode=6946
It is a harmless scaleless, eel-like animal with a pinkish body, a whitish head and a whitish mid dorsal stripe. The size of captured specimens ranges between 91 and 394 mm.
The Southern hagfish is found in the cold waters of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean from the coasts off Southwestern Brazil down to the Southern Ocean and the Tierra del Fuego and the Patagonian coasts of Chile and Argentina, including the Strait of Magellan. 
It lives hidden in the mud in relatively shallow water, between 10 and 100 metres. Its life cycle is unknown.
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