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BiologyInhabit lakes, swamps and rivers (Ref. 31256). Widespread in both shallow and deep water (Ref. 34291). Probably associated with rocky bottoms/coarse substrates (Ref. 27490). Mostly active during the night and the twilight hours (Ref. 2060). Juveniles may frequent exposed rocky shores (Ref. 12526). Feed on insects, crustaceans, mollusks and fish. Some debris and vegetable matter may also be ingested (Ref. 28714). Moderately important as a food species in Lake Victoria, but becoming rare with the appearance of Nile perch (Ref. 4967). Catches decreased strongly in Lake Victoria after the Lates upsurge (Ref. 34291). Predation by Lates and competition with Lates (for haplochromines) may have played a role in the decline (Ref. 34291). A notably recovery in waters between 3m and 6m depth in Lake Victoria has been reported (Ref. 51900). Second most important food species in Lake Edward, Congo (Ref. 13302).