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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits reef edges and slopes (Ref. 6113, 48637). Hides in caves and ledges during the day and forages at night (Ref. 9680). Also found below plate-corals during the day and often deep, ranging to at least 40 meters depth. Juveniles occur in lagoons and estuaries (Ref. 48637). Solitary. Feeds on crustaceans and mollusks. Not usually marketed (Ref. 9680).
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Distribution

Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Society Islands, north to southern Japan, south to New South Wales. Not present in Hawaii (Ref. 9680). Southeast Atlantic: southeast coast of South Africa (Ref. 4423).
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: South Africa and western Mascarenes east to Society Islands, north to southern Japan.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14 - 16; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 14 - 16
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Size

Maximum size: 650 mm ---
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Max. size

65.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710))
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Inhabits reef edges and slopes. Rests in caves and ledges during the day and forages at night. Solitary. Feeds on crustaceans and mollusks. Not usually marketed.
  • McClanahan, T.R. (1994). Kenya coral reef lagoon fish: effects of fishing, substrate complexity, and sea urchins. Coral Reefs 13: 231-241
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Spines short (Ref. 1602). Several yellow-edged dark blotches on body (Ref. 559). D. liturosus differs from D. hystrix by its shorter spines and color (Ref. 37816).
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 1 - 90 m (Ref. 37816), usually 15 - 30 m (Ref. 9680)
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Depth range based on 19 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 11 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.915 - 30
  Temperature range (°C): 26.751 - 29.003
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.099 - 0.622
  Salinity (PPS): 33.821 - 35.837
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.450 - 4.630
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.055 - 0.225
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.072 - 4.612

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.915 - 30

Temperature range (°C): 26.751 - 29.003

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.099 - 0.622

Salinity (PPS): 33.821 - 35.837

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.450 - 4.630

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.055 - 0.225

Silicate (umol/l): 1.072 - 4.612
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 15 - 30m.
From 15 to 30 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Inhabits reef edges and slopes (Ref. 6113). Hides in caves and ledges during the day and forages at night. Solitary. Feeds on crustaceans and molluscs. Not usually marketed (Ref. 9680).
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits reef edges and slopes (Ref. 6113). Hides in caves and ledges during the day and forages at night. Solitary. Feeds on crustaceans and molluscs (Ref. 9680).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Diodon liturosus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial; price category: unknown; price reliability:
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Wikipedia

Black-blotched porcupinefish

The black-blotched porcupinefish (Diodon liturosus), also known as shortspine porcupinefish, is a member of the family Diodontidae. It is found in the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indo-Pacific on coral and rocky reefs and in inshore waters. Other names are the blotched porcupinefish and the brown-backed porcupinefish.

Description[edit]

The Black-blotched porcupinefish is a medium sized fish which grows up to 65 cm (26 in), but the average size most likely to be observed is 45 cm (18 in).[1] Its body is elongated with a spherical head with big round protruding eyes and a large mouth that is rarely closed. The pectoral fins are large, the pelvic fins are absent, the anal and dorsal fins are close to the caudal peduncle. The latter move simultaneously during swimming. All fins are a uniform tint of white or yellowish without any spotting. The skin is smooth and firm, the scales are modified into spines directed towards the back. The body coloration is light brown to sandy-yellowwith dark blotches circled with a white line and pale ventral surface. The only other fish with which it might be confused is the long-spine porcupinefish, (Diodon holocanthus) but it has much shorter spines and it lacks a dark streak running between the eyes.[2]

In case of danger, the porcupinefish can inflate itself by swallowing water to deter the potential predator with its larger volume and it can raise its spines defensively.

The porcupinefish concentrates a poison, called tetrodotoxin, in certain parts of its body such as the liver, skin, gonads and the viscera. Tetrodotoxin is a powerful neurotoxin. This defensive system constitutes an additional device to dissuade the potential predators.[3]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The Black-blotched porcupinefish is found in the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indo-Pacific area from eastern coasts of Africa to Japan, the Society Islands and Western Australia, and also the southeast of the Atlantic Ocean on the coast of South Africa.[4]

Adults favour lagoons, top reefs and seaward coral or rocky reefs from one to 90 m depth,but it's usually met between 15 to 30 m.[5]

Biology[edit]

The porcupinefish's diet is based on Sea urchins, gastropods and crustaceans.[6]

This fish is solitary, except during mating periods, it has a nocturnal activity with a maximal activity at sunset and sunrise. During the day it normally hides in caves or under ledges.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.fishbase.org/summary/6552
  2. ^ "Black-blotched porcupinefish: Diodon liturosus Shaw, 1804". Australian Museum. Retrieved 2013-12-15. 
  3. ^ GRIGNARD Jean-Christophe, BOURJON Philippe, SITTLER Alain-Pierre, in : DORIS, 17/2/2013 : Diodon liturosus Shaw, 1804, http://doris.ffessm.fr/fiche2.asp?fiche_numero=2177
  4. ^ http://eol.org/pages/212629/details#distribution
  5. ^ GRIGNARD Jean-Christophe, BOURJON Philippe, SITTLER Alain-Pierre, in : DORIS, 17/2/2013 : Diodon liturosus Shaw, 1804, http://doris.ffessm.fr/fiche2.asp?fiche_numero=2177
  6. ^ Leis, J.M., 2001. Diodontidae. Porcupine fishes (burrfishes). p. 3958-3965. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome.
  7. ^ Leis, J.M., 2001. Diodontidae. Porcupine fishes (burrfishes). p. 3958-3965. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome.
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