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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Adults occur in lagoon and outer reefs in pairs and small groups (Ref. 48636). Monogamous (Ref. 55367). A protandrous hermaphrodite (Ref. 32166). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205). Associated with the anemones: Heteractis crispa and Stichodactyla mertensii (Ref. 5911). Have been reared in captivity (Ref. 35413, 35418, 35420).
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Distribution

Range Description

Amphiprion sandaracinos is distributed from Christmas Island and Western Australia to Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, Melanesia, the Philippines, Palau and northwards to the Ryukyu Islands.
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Western Pacific: Christmas Island and Western Australia to the Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan, Philippines, New Guinea, D'Entrecasteaux Islands, New Britain, and Solomon Islands.
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West Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 6 - 18; Analspines: 2; Analsoft rays: 12
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Size

Maximum size: 140 mm NG
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Max. size

14.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710))
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Diagnostic Description

Distinguished by the thick white line running from the snout over the back (Ref. 48636).
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Type Information

Holotype for Amphiprion sandaracinos
Catalog Number: USNM 147130
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1909
Locality: Marinduque Island and Vicinity; Capulaan Bay, Pagbilao Chica Island, Pagbilao Chica Island, Quezon, Philippines, Philippine Archipelago, Capulaan Bay, Pacific
Vessel: Albatross
  • Holotype:
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Paratype for Amphiprion sandaracinos
Catalog Number: USNM 160663
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1909
Locality: Marinduque Island and Vicinity; Capulaan Bay, Pagbilao Chica Island, Pagbilao Chica Island, Quezon, Philippines, Philippine Archipelago, Capulaan Bay, Pacific
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paratype:
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Paratype for Amphiprion sandaracinos
Catalog Number: USNM 160664
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1909
Locality: Bolinao Bay (East of Village); West Coast of Luzon, Manila Bay To Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, Philippines, Bolinao Bay, Pacific
Depth (m): 3 to 4
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paratype:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The anemonefish Amphiprion sandaracinos has a depth range of 3 - 20 m and is found in lagoons and outer coral reefs. It is most commonly associated with the host anemone species' Stichodactyla mertensii and less frequently with Heteractis crispa (Fautin and Allen 1992). This species is a protandrous hermaphrodite (G. Allen pers. comm. 2009). This species is monogamous (G. Allen pers. comm. 2009).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; non-migratory; marine; depth range 3 - 20 m (Ref. 7247)
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Depth range based on 7 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 21

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 21
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 3 - 20m.
From 3 to 20 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Occurs in lagoon and outer reefs, commensal with the anemone @Stoichactis giganteum@, and @S. mertensii@.
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Trophic Strategy

Occurs in lagoon and outer reefs, commensal with the anemone Stoichactis giganteum, and S. mertensii. Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35413, 35418, 35420, 37816).
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Benthic spawner. Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205). Length at sex change = 5.1 cm TL (Ref. 55367). Also Ref. 240, 7471.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Amphiprion sandaracinos

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 3 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CCTTTATCTAATTTTCGGTGCTTGAGCTGGAATAGTAGGCACGGCCTTAAGCCTTCTTATTCGAGCAGAATTAAGCCAACCAGGCGCACTTTTAGGAGATGATCAGATTTATAACGTTATTGTTACCGCACATGCCTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTCTAATTGGAGGATTTGGAAACTGACTAGTGCCCCTCATGCTTGGCGCCCCCGATATAGCATTTCCTCGCATAAACAACATAAGCTTCTGACTTCTCCCTCCCTCCTTCCTTCTTCTGCTTGCCTCCTCAGGGGTTGAAGCCGGGGCCGGAACAGGCTGAACTGTTTACCCACCACTGTCTGGGAACCTAGCCCATGCAGGAGCATCAGTAGACCTAACTATCTTCTCCCTCCACCTGGCAGGTGTTTCATCAATCCTGGGAGCAATCAACTTTATTACTACCATTATTAACATGAAACCCCCTGCCATCACACAGTATCAAACCCCTCTATTTGTTTGAGCTGTCCTAATTACTGCTGTTCTTCTCCTCCTCTCTCTCCCAGTTTTAGCTGCCGGTATTACTATGCTCTTAACAGACCGAAACCTAAATACTACCTTCTTTGATCCAGCAGGAGGAGGAGATCCAATTCTCTACCAACACCT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Amphiprion sandaracinos

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Curtis-Quick, J.

Reviewer/s
Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M.

Contributor/s
De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P. & Smith, J. and Livingston, F.

Justification
Amphiprion sandaracinos has been assessed as Least Concern. This species is relatively common throughout its range without any appreciable decline over the last 30 - 40years. Current threats are of a localised nature only.
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Population

Population
Amphiprion sandaracinos is relatively common throughout its range (G. Allen pers. comm. 2009). This species is commensal with sea anemones, usually one adult pair and several juveniles per anemone (G. Allen pers. comm. 2009).

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
Amphiprion sandaracinos is commercially harvested for the aquarium trade, and it is caught with hand nets (FAO 2001). The anemone in which this species resides, is also commercially harvested for the aquarium trade.

In areas of its range it is threatened by habitat degradation due to eutrophication, destructive fishing practices, tourism, coral bleaching, coastal development and water pollution.

The threats detailed are mainly of a localised nature and do not pose a significant threat to the global population of this species.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Amphiprion sandaracinos has been bred in captivity. The distribution of this species may fall within numerous marine protected areas including the Christmas Island National Park.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

aquarium: commercial
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Wikipedia

Orange skunk clownfish

Amphiprion sandaracinos, also known as the Orange skunk clownfish or Golden anemonefish, is a marine fish belonging to the family Pomacentridae which gathers clownfishes and damselfishes.[2]

Description[edit]

The orange skunk clownfish is a small sized fish which grows up to 11 cm as a female and 3 to 6.5 cm as a male.[3] Its body has a stock appearance, oval shape, compressed laterally and with a round profile.[4] Its coloration is very bright orange,[citation needed] with a white stripe on the dorsal ridge from the superior lip, passing between the eyes and ending at the caudal fin base.[3] All the fins have the same coloration as the body except the dorsal fin which is partially white. Its iris is bright yellow.[5]

Distribution[edit]

The orange skunk clownfish is found in the center of the Indo-Pacific area,[6] especially by the Philippines and Christmas Island.[3] Other known locations include Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, Melanesia, and north to southern Japan.[7]

Habitat[edit]

Amphiprion sandaracinos typically lives in small groups on outer reef slopes or in lagoons at a maximal depth of 20 metres (66 ft). It inhabits in association with two different species of sea anemones. It's often observed in Stichodactyla mertensii and rarely in Heteractis crispa.[8]

Feeding[edit]

This anemonefish is omnivorous and its diet is based on zooplankton, small benthic crustaceans and algaes.[9]

Behaviour[edit]

Amphiprion sandaracinos has a diurnal activity. It is protrandous hermaphrodite, which means the male can turn into a female during his life, and lives in harem in which an established dominance hierarchy manages the group and keeps individuals at a specific social rank. It has also an aggressive territorial behaviour and it is completely dependant from its sea anemone which represents its "life insurance" as a safe shelter for the group and for the nest.[10]

The associative relationship that binds the clownfish and the sea anemone is called mutualism. In one hand, the fish lives within the sea anemone's tentacles and uses it as a shelter because it has developed a fin layer of mucus which covers its body as a protection against the stinging anemone's tentacles. On the other hand, the presence of the clownfish can be interpreted as a lure to attract potential anemone's preys close to the tentacles. And the clownfish can also defend the anemone against some reef fishes which could eat the tentacles.[11]

In aquaria[edit]

Orange skunk clownfish are kept by many people for the aquarium hobby.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Curtis-Quick (2010). "Amphiprion sandaracinos". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2014-08-19. 
  2. ^ http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/summary/154812/0
  3. ^ a b c Tristan Lougher (2006). What Fish?: A Buyer's Guide to Marine Fish. Interpet Publishing. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-84286-118-9. "An attractive fish species, identifiable by the single broad stripe running along its back from the upper jaw to the base of the tail." 
  4. ^ Lieske & Myers,Coral reef fishes,Princeton University Press, 2009, ISBN 9780691089959
  5. ^ http://eol.org/pages/212621/details
  6. ^ http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Amphiprion-sandaracinos.html
  7. ^ Dianne J. Bray, 2011, Orange Anemonefish, Amphiprion sandaracinos, in Fishes of Australia, accessed 25 Aug 2014, http://www.fishesofaustralia.net.au/Home/species/1278
  8. ^ Fautin & Dr Allen ’’Field guide to anemonefishes and their host sea anemones’’, Western Australian Museum,1992, ISBN 9781564651181
  9. ^ http://eol.org/pages/212621/details
  10. ^ http://eol.org/pages/212621/details
  11. ^ http://eol.org/pages/212621/details
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