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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabit coral reefs and occurs in pairs or groups, usually near soft coral (Ref. 9710). Juveniles solitary and found on shallow protected reefs or in estuaries (Ref. 48636). Home ranging, solitary or in pairs (Ref. 90102). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205). Have never been imported although they can be easily maintained in a tank.
  • Steene, R.C. 1978 Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. A.H. & A.W. Reed Pty Ltd., Australia. vol. 1. 144 p. (Ref. 4859)
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Distribution

Range Description

This species ranges from the Ryukyu Islands (Japan) and the island of Taiwan in the north; through the Philippines; Indonesia (including Java, and the Anambas and Natuna Islands); the island of Borneo (Malaysian Borneo); to northwestern Australia (a few records from Western Australia and the Dampier Archipelago [Steene 1978]). It has been encountered between 1-30 m (Pyle 2001).
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Western Pacific: Ryukyu Islands and Taiwan to Java, Indonesia and northwestern Australia.
  • Pyle, R. 2001 Chaetodontidae. Butterflyfishes. p.3224-3265. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae). Rome, FAO. pp. 2791-3380. (Ref. 48331)
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Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 23 - 26; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 18 - 21
  • Burgess, W.E. 1978 Butterflyfishes of the world. A monograph of the Family Chaetodontidae. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. (Ref. 4855)
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Size

Maximum size: 160 mm NG
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Max. size

20.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 48636))
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Diagnostic Description

Description: Body color is white with diagonal brown stripes on the sides. The dorsal, caudal anal and pelvic fins are yellow. A broad black band is on the face, covering the eye. A black isolated spot is on the forehead (Ref. 4855). Snout length 2.8-3.4 in HL. Body depth 1.3-1.6 in SL (Ref. 90102).
  • Burgess, W.E. 1978 Butterflyfishes of the world. A monograph of the Family Chaetodontidae. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. (Ref. 4855)
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; non-migratory; marine; depth range 1 - 30 m (Ref. 90102)
  • Allen, G.R. and M.V. Erdmann 2012 Reef fishes of the East Indies. Perth, Australia: Universitiy of Hawai'i Press, Volumes I-III. Tropical Reef Research. (Ref. 90102)
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species inhabits coral reefs and reef slopes (Pyle 2001), where it is often encountered in pairs or groups near soft coral. The species feeds on corals, crabs, worms, and other invertebrates (Pyle 2001).

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 2 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 2 - 21
  Temperature range (°C): 28.575 - 28.575
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.323 - 0.323
  Salinity (PPS): 34.228 - 34.228
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.448 - 4.448
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.171 - 0.171
  Silicate (umol/l): 3.194 - 3.194

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 2 - 21
 
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Depth: 3 - 25m.
From 3 to 25 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Inhabits coral reefs and occurs in pairs or groups, usually near soft coral (Ref. 9710). Has never been imported although it can be easily maintained in a tank.
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits coral reefs and occurs in pairs or groups, usually near soft coral (Ref. 9710).
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
  • Thresher, R.E. 1984 Reproduction in reef fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Inc. Ltd., Neptune City, New Jersey. 399 p. (Ref. 240)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Chaetodon adiergastos

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Myers, R. & Pratchett, M.

Reviewer/s
Elfes, C., Polidoro, B., Livingstone, S. & Carpenter, K.E.

Contributor/s

Justification

There have been no declines documented for this species It has a relatively wide distribution, apparently large population and no obvious major threats other than coral loss. The impacts of coral reef degradation are unknown. Collection is limited and is not considered to be impacting the global population. It is therefore listed as Least Concern. It is recommended that further research is carried out on the threats and feeding behaviour of this species.

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Population

Population

It is generally common with stable populations (G.R. Allen pers. comm. 2006).


Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats

There appear to be no major threats to this species. Collection is limited and is not considered to be impacting the global population. There has been widespread coral degradation throughout its range which may have impacted the population, although it is not known to what extent.

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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

There appear to be no species specific conservation measures in place (G.R. Allen pers. comm. 2006). This species is presumably present in a number of regional marine protected areas. Further field surveys are needed to better determine the distribution, natural history (its diet is unknown) and possible threats from coral reef degradation.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

aquarium: commercial
  • Burgess, W.E., H.R. Axelrod and R.E. Hunziker III 1990 Dr. Burgess's atlas of marine aquarium fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. 768 p.
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Wikipedia

Philippine butterflyfish

The Philippine Butterflyfish, Chaetodon adiergastos, is a species of butterflyfish (family Chaetodontidae). It is found in the western Pacific, from the Ryukyu Islands and Taiwan to Java and northwestern Australia.[2]

It grows to a maximum length of 20 cm (nearly 8 in). The body is white with diagonal brown stripes on the sides. The dorsal, caudal, anal and pelvic fins are yellow. There are rounded broad black bands on the face, covering the eye, but not continuous from one side of the body to the other but with a separate black spot centered on the forehead.[2]

It belongs to the large subgenus Rabdophorus which might warrant recognition as a distinct genus. In this group, it appears to belong to a loose group including such species as the Black Butterflyfish (C. flavirostris), Diagonal Butterflyfish (C. fasciatus), Raccoon Butterflyfish (C. lunula) and perhaps also the unusual Red-tailed Butterflyfish (C. collare). Although the coloration of this group varies quite a lot, they are all largish butterflyfishes with an oval outline, and most have a pattern of ascending oblique stripes on the flanks. Except in the Red-tailed Butterflyfish, there is at least a vestigial form of the "raccoon" mask, with a white space between the dark crown and eye areas.[3]

The Philippine Butterflyfish is found in coral reefs at depths of 3-25 m and occurs in pairs or groups, usually near soft coral. Juveniles are solitary and found on shallow protected reefs or in estuaries.[2]

Footnotes[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ Myers, R. & Pratchett, M. 2010. Chaetodon adiergastos. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 10 September 2013.
  2. ^ a b c FishBase [2008]
  3. ^ Fessler & Westneat (2007), Hsu et al. (2007)

References[edit source | edit]

  • Fessler, Jennifer L. & Westneat, Mark W. (2007): Molecular phylogenetics of the butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae): Taxonomy and biogeography of a global coral reef fish family. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 45(1): 50–68. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.05.018 (HTML abstract)
  • FishBase [2008]: Chaetodon adiergastos. Retrieved 2008-SEP-01.
  • Hsu, Kui-Ching; Chen, Jeng-Ping & Shao, Kwang-Tsao (2007): Molecular phylogeny of Chaetodon (Teleostei: Chaetodontidae) in the Indo-West Pacific: evolution in geminate species pairs and species groups. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement 14: 77-86. PDF fulltext
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