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Overview

Brief Summary

The Centriscinae (razorfishes or shrimpfishes) are a small group of Indo-Pacific fishes that includes just two genera (Aeoliscus and Centriscus), each with two species. Although this group was formerly treated as a family, Centriscidae, it is now generally treated as a subfamily, Centriscinae, within a more broadly defined Centriscidae that also includes the snipefishes (Macroramphosus) and bellowsfishes (Notopogon) (Eschmeyer and Fricke 2012).

Razorfishes are encased in thin, transparent bony plates that are expansions of the vertebral column. The body is extremely compressed, with a sharp ventral edge (hence the common name "razorfish"). The snout is long and tubular, with a small, toothless mouth. The caudal fin and soft dorsal fin are displaced ventrally, so the spinous dorsal fin is in the usual position of the caudal (tail) fin and the long first dorsal spine is in alignment with the dorsal edge of the body. There is no lateral line. These fishes are usually encountered in aggregations swimming vertically with heads pointed downward. They feed mainly on crustaceans. (Randall 1995)

The Grooved Razorfish (Centriscus scutatus) may reach 15 cm in length. It is found from the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf to the Indo-Malayan region, south to Queensland (Australia) and north to Japan. It occurs over mud or silty sand substrata from less than 5 m to 80 m depth. See Randall (1995) for a technical morphological description. (Randall 1995)

de Lussanet and Muller (2007) examined the efect of the Grooved Razorfish's long snout on feeding kinematics, suggesting that the long snout is an adaptation for reaching prey as fast as possible through a head rotation (which they refer to as "pivot feeding"). In trials, fish typically made capture movements at a rate of 6 to 10 per minute. The next capture movement could start a few seconds after the end of the previous one. The measured prey capture times of 4 to 6 ms for the Grooved Razorfish are among the shortest ever reported for vertebrates.

  • de Lussanet, M.H.E. and M. Muller. 2007. The smaller your mouth, the longer your snout: predicting the snout length of Syngnathus acus, Centriscus scutatus and other pipette feeders. Journal of the Royal Society Interface. 4: 561–573.
  • Eschmeyer, W. N. & R. Fricke (eds.). Catalog of Fishes, electronic version (accessed 12 January 2012).
  • Mohr, E. 1937. Revision der Centriscidae (Acanthopterygii, Centrisciformes). Dana Rep., no. 13: 1-69.
  • Randall, J.E. Coastal Fishes of Oman. 1995. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.
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Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits sandy or muddy floors of shallow inlet waters. Usually in large schools among branching corals, seawhip gardens and black coral bushes to about 15 m depth. Small juveniles in surface waters and sometimes in small groups along beach edges in quite bays and settle with crinoids or urchins (Ref. 48635). Usually processed into fishmeal (Ref. 2858).
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Distribution

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and Arabian Gulf (Ref. 11441) to New Guinea, north to southern Japan, south to New South Wales, Australia.
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Arabian Gulf east to New Guinea, north to southern Japan, south to New South Wales (Australia).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 3; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10 - 12; Analsoft rays: 11 - 12
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Size

Maximum size: 150 mm TL
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Max. size

15.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. ))
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Inhabits sandy or muddy floors of shallow inlet waters.
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Silvery with reddish brown to blackish mid-lateral stripe. Main dorsal spine moderately long and without joint (Ref. 48635).
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; brackish; marine; depth range 3 - 100 m (Ref. 37816)
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Depth range based on 297 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 125 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 4.7477 - 333
  Temperature range (°C): 24.169 - 28.897
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.026 - 5.762
  Salinity (PPS): 34.112 - 39.819
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.378 - 4.747
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.054 - 0.475
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.798 - 9.099

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 4.7477 - 333

Temperature range (°C): 24.169 - 28.897

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.026 - 5.762

Salinity (PPS): 34.112 - 39.819

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.378 - 4.747

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.054 - 0.475

Silicate (umol/l): 0.798 - 9.099
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Trophic Strategy

Found on the continental shelf. Schooling species (Ref. 75154).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Centriscus scutatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

AGCCTCCTTATCCGGGCAGAACTAAGCCAACCAGGCGCACTTCTTGGAGAC---GATCAAATTTATAATGTTATTGTTACCGCCCACGCCTTTGTAATAATCTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATCATGATTGGGGGTTTTGGCAACTGACTAATCCCATTAATG---ATTGGAGCACCCGACATGGCATTCCCTCGAATAAACAACATAAGCTTCTGACTCCTCCCTCCCTCATTTCTCCTCCTTTTGGCCTCTTCTGGTGTAGAAGCAGGAGCTGGCACCGGATGAACAGTATACCCACCCCTTGCTGGAAACCTGGCCCACGCCGGAGCTTCAGTAGATTTA---ACTATTTTCTCCCTTCATCTAGCAGGTATCTCATCAATTCTTGGCGCAATTAACTTTATCACTACAATTATTAACATGAAGTCCCCTGCTGTTTCGCAGTATCAAACCCCTCTTTTTGTGTGAGCTGTTTTAATTACAGCCGTTCTTCTTCTCCTGTCCCTCCCAGTCCTAGCTGCT---GGAATTACCATGCTTCTAACAGATCGAAATCTAAAC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Centriscus scutatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Genomic DNA is available from 1 specimen with morphological vouchers housed at Queensland Museum
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

aquarium: commercial
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