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Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

The round ribbontail ray feeds on bottom-dwelling fish, crabs and shrimp (2); the positioning of the mouth on the underside of the body is perfect for scooping up animals hiding in the sand. These rays can be found singly or in aggregations (2). Reproduction is ovoviviparous, with up to seven live young being born per litter (6).
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Description

As with most rays, the body of this large stingray is flattened and disc-shaped, with the pectoral fins broadly expanded and joined to the head and body. The tail is distinctly demarcated from the disc-like body, relatively narrow, and about as long as the body length. The round ribbontail ray has a circular-shaped disc that has a mottled pattern of black, grey and white spots and blotches on its upper surface, while the tail is uniformly black behind the sting (3) (4). The underside is pale, while the edges of the body disc and under-surface of the tail are a greyish-brown to black (3). A deep and prominent skin fold runs along the underside of the tail (2) (4).
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Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: fantail ray (English), ribbontail ray (English), raya-látigo (Espanol)
 
Taeniura meyeni Muller & Henle, 1841


Black-spotted fantail ray,     Blotched fantail ray,     Round ribbontail ray

Disc almost circular, a little wider than long, narrower at rear; mouth broad, with 7 short papillae on floor; teeth small, densely packed like tiles, 37-46 upper tooth rows, 39-45 lower rows; pelvics small, elongate; tail with thick, depressed base,  slightly longer than disc; tail with no ridge on top and a large (height several times depth of tail itself) fold under tail from under spines to tail tip; 2 large venomous spines on top of tail; disc uniformly covered with small star-shaped denticles, a middle row of enlarged denticles on disc and tail.


Purple, blue-grey to  dark grey above, with moderate to dense scattering of irregular black spots; dull to creamy white below.

Size: 300 cm long, 75 cm wide; to 150kg

Habitat: sandy areas around rocky and coral reefs.

Depth: 5-500 m.

Indo-Pacific; resident in the Galapagos and Cocos.
   
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Biology

Occurs in a wide range of habitats, from shallow lagoons to outer reef slopes (Ref. 1602). Feeds on bottom fish, bivalves, crabs and shrimp (Ref. 5578). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Smallest free-swimming specimen recorded was 33 cm WD. Caught commonly by demersal tangle net fisheries, and occasionally by longline and bottom trawl fisheries. Utilized for its meat and cartilage (Ref.58048). Found singly or in aggregates and usually with jacks and cobia swimming near them (Ref. 12951). Not normally aggressive, but it has been responsible for at least one human fatality. Sought by surf and ski boat anglers in southern Africa, but usually released unharmed (Ref. 5578). Longevity record for a specimen in an aquarium is 81 days (Ref. 12951). May reach disc width in excess of 3 m (Ref. 28023).
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Distribution

Range Description

Wide Indo-West Pacific distribution.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, TEP non-endemic, Indo-Pacific only (Indian + Pacific Oceans), "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific), All Pacific (West + Central + East)

Regional Endemism: All species, Eastern Pacific non-endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic, Island (s), Island (s) only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
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Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to southern Japan, Micronesia, tropical Australia and Lord Howe Island. Eastern Pacific: known only from oceanic islands (Cocos and the Galapagos) but because of sheer number, individuals may colonize the Central America mainland (Ref. 28023). More widely known as Taeniura melanospila Bleeker 1853, a junior synonym based on the description of a juvenile specimen.
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa and Mascarenes east to Marquesas Islands, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Queensland (Australia), Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island and New Caledonia.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 5 (S) - 500 (S)
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Range

Found throughout the East and West Pacific, Red Sea and Indian Ocean (5). Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to southern Japan, Micronesia, tropical Australia and Lord Howe Island (2). Eastern Pacific: known only from oceanic islands (Cocos and the Galapagos), where the species is very common, but individuals may also colonise waters around the Central America mainland (2) (5).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 300.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 3300 mm TL
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Max. size

330 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573)); max. published weight: 150.0 kg (Ref. 11228)
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Occurs from shallow lagoons to outer reef slopes, and on soft bottoms including banks. Has been trawled from as deep as 430 m off East Africa; most common at 20-60 m depth. Feeds on demersal fishes. Disk width about 180 cm. Not normally aggressive, but it has been responsible for at least one human fatality. May be caught using longlines (Ref. 5213)
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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A large stingray with a circular disc, no thorns, a black and white mottled upper surface, and a deep and prominent ventral skin fold that extends to the tail tip (Ref. 6871).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Benthic around coral reef habitats and on sand substrates from the surf zone offshore to 439 m depth (Compagno et al. 1989, Last and Compagno 1999). Very little is known of its biology. Aplacental viviparous with reported litter sizes of up to seven young (Compagno et al. 1989).

Feeds on bivalves, crabs, shrimp and benthic fishes (Compagno et al. 1989).

Life history parameters
Age at maturity (years): Unknown.
Size at maturity (disc width): Female: unknown; Male: 100 to 110 cm DW (W. White unpublished data).
Longevity (years): Unknown.
Maximum size (disc width): 180 cm DW; ~330 cm TL (Last and Stevens 1994).
Size at birth: ~35 cm DW; 67 cm TL (Last and Stevens 1994); 33 cm DW (W. White unpublished data).
Average reproductive age (years): Unknown.
Gestation time (months): Unknown.
Reproductive periodicity: Unknown.
Average annual fecundity or litter size: Litter sizes up to 7 (Compagno et al. 1989).
Annual rate of population increase: Unknown.
Natural mortality: Unknown.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range ? - 500 m (Ref. 37816), usually 20 - 60 m (Ref. 30573)
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Depth range based on 34 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 24 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 14 - 84.5
  Temperature range (°C): 20.792 - 28.124
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.218 - 5.562
  Salinity (PPS): 33.371 - 35.639
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.107 - 5.040
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.144 - 0.628
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.055 - 5.767

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 14 - 84.5

Temperature range (°C): 20.792 - 28.124

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.218 - 5.562

Salinity (PPS): 33.371 - 35.639

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.107 - 5.040

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.144 - 0.628

Silicate (umol/l): 1.055 - 5.767
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 0 - 450m.
Recorded at 450 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Occurs in a wide range of habitats, from shallow lagoons to outer reef slopes (Ref. 1602). Feeds on demersal fishes. Found singly or in aggregates and usually with jacks and cobia swimming near them (Ref. 12951). Not normally aggressive, but it has been responsible for at least one human fatality. Viviparous, with up to 7 in a litter (Ref. 6871, 12951). Longevity record for a specimen in an aquarium is 81 days (Ref. 12951).
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Rocks, Corals, Reef and soft bottom, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom), Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Sand & gravel

FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
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Occurs in a range of habitats, from shallow lagoons to outer reef slopes, to depths of 500 m (2).
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits sandy areas in coral reefs (Ref. 9137). A carnivore (Ref. 9137).
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves, bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). With up to 7 in a litter (Ref. 6871, 12951).
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Reproduction

Egg Type: Live birth, No pelagic larva, No pelagic phase
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Taeniura meyeni

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A2ad+3d+4ad

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2006

Assessor/s
Kyne, P.M. & White, W.T.

Reviewer/s
Fowler, S.L. & Cavanagh, R.D. (Shark Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Taeniura meyeni is a large (to 1.8 m disc width), widely distributed Indo-West Pacific stingray associated with coral reef and sandy habitats. Found inshore to a depth of 439 m. Little is known of its biology, although litter size is known to be small (up to seven young). There is also little information on threats and fishery catches throughout much of the species? range, but given the intense fishing pressure known to be on large batoid species in areas such as Southeast Asia, the particular vulnerability of the species to various fishing methods, its limited life history characteristics and the general declining health of coral reef systems (its main habitat) throughout its Indo-West Pacific distribution, the species is assessed globally as Vulnerable. In Australia, the species is considered Least Concern due to protection afforded in marine parks and the effective use of Turtle Exclusion Devices in northern Australian prawn trawl fisheries, which should limit the catch of the species there. Similarly, it is assessed as Least Concern in the Maldives where the species has a high ecotourism value and is thus afforded protection through the prohibition of the export of rays and ray products.
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IUCN Red List: Listed, Vulnerable

CITES: Not listed
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Status

Classified as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List (1).
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Population

Population
Relationships between populations across its wide distribution not known.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
The species is caught by line gear and trawl throughout its range. Throughout Southeast Asia there is significant fishing pressure on large batoids, and whether targeted or taken as bycatch, all are landed and utilised. For example, in Indonesia Taeniura meyeni is regularly taken in low numbers by tangle netters operating out of Jakarta (Java), Bali and Merauke (West Papua), while demersal longliners that operate out of Lombok and large pair trawlers operating out of Merauke irregularly take adults. The latter fishery consists of some 650 vessels and pressure is intense where the vessels operate in the Arafura Sea. Low numbers of juveniles are also taken by prawn and fish trawlers around Indonesia, particularly in the Java Sea.

Overall, fishing pressure is significant over most of the species? range throughout Asia and across its Indian Ocean range (India, East Africa etc.). Additional pressure exists on its habitat in that region due to destructive fishing practices (dynamite fishing) and run-off impacting coral reef systems, the main habitat of the species.

In Australia, the species is a discarded bycatch in demersal prawn trawl fisheries. In the Northern Prawn Fishery (NPF), Taeniura meyeni had a mean catch rate of 0.4 individuals/km2 and was classified as amongst the least sustainable elasmobranch bycatch species in the fishery (this assessment combines the species? susceptibility to capture and mortality due to trawling and the capacity of the species to recover after depletion by trawling) (Stobutzki et al. 2002). The mandatory use of Turtle Exclusions Devices in prawn trawl fisheries operating off northern Australia (including the NPF and the Queensland East Coast Trawl Fishery) should limit the catch of this species in these fisheries.

Taken by recreational surf and skiboat anglers off South Africa, but is apparently released unharmed (Compagno et al. 1989). Also a bycatch of offshore trawlers off southern Africa (Compagno et al. 1989).
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Vulnerable (VU) (A2ad+3d+4ad)
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The round ribbontail ray is reportedly caught by trawl nets, gill nets and hook lines in Malaysia (3), although it may also be affected by fisheries elsewhere. Additionally, the ray is sought by surf and ski boat anglers in southern Africa, but is usually released unharmed (2).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Taeniura meyeni is afforded protection in some regions in marine protected areas. These include the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia and in marine reserves created around diving sites in the Maldives in recognition of the high value of sharks and rays to tourism (Anderson and Waheed 2001).

The Maldives banned the export of rays on 1995 and the export of ray skins in 1996. Again, this was to protect the tourism resource (Anderson and Waheed 2001).

The recreational line fishery in South Africa is managed by a bag limit of one/species/person/day for unspecified chondrichthyans, which includes T. meyeni.

The development and implementation of management plans (national and/or regional e.g., under the FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks: IPOA?Sharks) are required to facilitate the conservation and sustainable management of all chondrichthyan species in the region. See Anon. (2004) for an update of progress made by nations in the range of T. meyeni.
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Conservation

There are currently no conservation measures targeting this species. The ray is found in various protected areas, however, such as Lord Howe Island Marine Park (7). The longevity record for a specimen in an aquarium is 81 days, suggesting that captive breeding is not a viable option in efforts to increase numbers of this animal (2).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
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Wikipedia

Round ribbontail ray

The round ribbontail ray (Taeniura meyeni) is a species of stingray in the family Dasyatidae, found throughout the nearshore waters of the tropical Indo-Pacific, as well as off islands in the eastern Pacific. It is a bottom-dwelling inhabitant of lagoons, estuaries, and reefs, generally at a depth of 20–60 m (66–197 ft). Reaching 1.8 m (5.9 ft) across, this large ray is characterized by a thick, rounded pectoral fin disc covered by small tubercles on top, and a relatively short tail bearing a deep ventral fin fold. In addition, it has a variable but distinctive light and dark mottled pattern on its upper surface, and a black tail.

Generally nocturnal, the round ribbontail ray can be solitary or gregarious, and is an active predator of small, benthic molluscs, crustaceans, and bony fishes. It is aplacental viviparous, with the embryos sustained by yolk, and later histotroph ("uterine milk") secreted by the mother; up to seven pups are born at a time. Although not aggressive, if provoked the round ribbontail ray will defend itself with its venomous tail spine, and it has been responsible for at least one fatality. It is valued by ecotourist divers and recreational anglers. This slow-reproducing species is threatened by commercial fishing, both targeted and as bycatch, and habitat degradation across much of its range. As a result, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has assessed it as Vulnerable.

Taxonomy and phylogeny[edit]

As Taeniura meyeni, the round ribbontail ray was described by German biologists Johannes Peter Müller and Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle in their 1841 Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen, based on two syntypes collected from Mauritius. However, this species is better known under the name Taeniura melanospila (or melanospilos), which was applied by Dutch ichthyologist Pieter Bleeker to a juvenile specimen from Java, in a 1953 volume of the scientific journal Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië.[2][3]

Other common names for the round ribbontail ray include black spotted ray, black-blotched stingray, black-spotted stingray, fantail ray, fantail stingray, giant reef ray, blotched fantail ray, and speckled stingray.[4] In Australia, it is one of several species referred to as "bull ray".[5] A minority of authors place this species with the river stingrays in the family Potamotrygonidae.[1] Preliminary morphological examination has suggested that the round ribbontail ray is more related to Dasyatis and Indo-Pacific Himantura than to the congeneric bluespotted ribbontail ray (T. lymma), which is closer to the amphi-American Himantura (H. pacifica and H. schmardae) and the river stingrays.[6]

Description[edit]

Overhead view of a stingray on reef, showing its nearly circular shape
Characteristic features of the round ribbontail ray are its rounded, thick disc and mottled coloration.

The round ribbontail ray has a thick pectoral fin disc wider than it is long, with a smoothly rounded outer margin. The eyes are of medium size and are followed by larger spiracles. There is a short and broad curtain of skin between the oval nostrils, with a finely fringed trailing margin. The mouth is wide and curved, with faint furrows at the corners. There is a row of seven papillae on the floor, with the outermost pair smaller and set apart from the others.[7] There are 37–46 tooth rows in the upper jaw and 39–45 tooth rows in the lower jaw.[8] The teeth are small with a deep groove across the crown, and are arranged in a dense quincunx pattern into flattened surfaces.[9]

The pelvic fins are small and narrow.[7] The tail is relatively short, not exceeding the width of the disc, and bears one (rarely two) long, serrated stinging spine on the upper surface. The base of the tail is broad; past the spine the tail rapidly thins, and bears a deep ventral fin fold that runs to the tail tip.[7] The upper surface of the disc and tail are roughened by a uniform covering of small, widely spaced granules. There is also a midline row of sharp tubercles on the back, with two shorter rows alongside. The first of these tubercles develop at a length of around 46 cm (18 in), over the "shoulders" and in the single midline row.[9]

The dorsal coloration is light to dark gray, brown-gray, or purplish, becoming most intense towards the fin margins, with a highly variable pattern of irregular darker mottling and white speckles or streaks. The tail past the spine, including the fin fold, is uniformly black, while the underside is creamy white with darker fin margins and additional dots. Young rays are more plain in coloration than adults.[9][10] One of the largest stingray species, the round ribbontail ray can grow to 1.8 m (5.9 ft) across, 3.3 m (11 ft) long, and 150 kg (330 lb) in weight.[3]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

A stingray swimming over coral rubble and sand
The round ribbontail ray frequents sandy patches near coral reefs.

The round ribbontail ray has a wide distribution in the Indo-Pacific region: it is found from KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa northward along the East African coast to the Red Sea, including Madagascar and the Mascarenes; from there, its range extends eastward through the Indian subcontinent to Southeast Asia and Micronesia, occurring as far north as Korea and southern Japan, and as far south as Australia, where it is found from at least Ningaloo Reef off Western Australia to Stradbroke Island off Queensland, including Lord Howe Island.[7] In the easternmost portion of its range, it has been reported from Cocos Island and the Galápagos Islands, with individuals possibly dispersing as far as Central America.[4]

Bottom-dwelling in nature, the round ribbontail ray is typically found close to shore at a depth of 20–60 m (66–197 ft), though it has been reported anywhere from the surf zone to a depth of 439 m (1,440 ft).[1][4] It favors sand or rubble bottoms in shallow lagoons or near coral and rocky reefs, and may also enter estuaries.[11][9]

Biology and ecology[edit]

Side view of a stingray resting on a patch of sand beneath a coral ledge
The round ribbontail ray is relatively inactive during the day, often resting on sand near reef structures.

The round ribbontail ray has nocturnal habits and rests motionless for much of the day, often near vertical structures, in caves, or under ledges.[10] It may be solitary, or form small to large groups. This ray is frequently shadowed by one or more jacks or cobia (Rachycentron canadum); these smaller fishes may feed on food stirred up by the ray's activities, or use the ray's body as cover for approaching their own prey.[11] The round ribbontail ray hunts for bivalves, crabs, shrimps, and small bony fishes on the bottom.[10] When feeding, it adopts a characteristic posture in which it presses the margin of its disc against the bottom and takes in water through its spiracles, which it blows through its mouth to uncover prey buried in the sediment.[12] This species may fall prey to larger fishes such as sharks, and marine mammals.[3] When threatened, it raises its tail over its back so that the spine faces forward, and waves it back and forth.[10] Known parasites of this species include the monogenean Dasybatotrema spinosum,[13] Dendromonocotyle pipinna,[14] Neoentobdella garneri and N. taiwanensis,[15] and the nematode Echinocephalus overstreeti.[16]

Little information is available on the life history of the round ribbontail ray. Like other stingrays, it is aplacental viviparous: the unborn embryos are initially sustained by yolk, which is later supplemented by histotroph ("uterine milk", containing proteins, lipids, and mucus) produced by the mother.[3] Reproductive aggregations numbering in the hundreds have been observed at Cocos Island shortly after the onset of La Niña, which brings cooler temperatures. During these periods a single female may be pursued by dozens of males.[12] Females bear litters of up to seven pups, each measuring 33–35 cm (13–14 in) across and 67 cm (26 in) long.[1] Off South Africa, birthing may take place in the summer.[17] Males attain sexual maturity at a disc width of 1.0–1.1 m (3.3–3.6 ft); the maturation size of females is unknown.[1]

Human interactions[edit]

Overhead view of a stingray swimming just beneath the surface in very shallow water close to a beach
A round ribbontail ray in the Maldives, where it is a valuable ecotourist draw.

The round ribbontail ray is not aggressive, and has been known to approach and investigate divers.[9] However, if harassed it can inflict a severe wound with its venomous tail spine. This species has been responsible for at least one recorded fatality, of a diver who was stabbed while attempting to ride the ray. The round ribbontail ray is popular with ecotourist divers because of its size and spectacular appearance.[1][10] Although displayed in public aquariums, it is not hardy and 81 days is the longest one has been kept in captivity.[11]

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has assessed the round ribbontail ray as Vulnerable. It cannot withstand heavy fishing pressure due to its low reproductive rate, and there is widespread degradation of its coral reef habitat, including from agricultural runoff and destructive fishing practices such as blast fishing. This species is caught by commercial and fisheries throughout its range, using line gear and trawls. One region where it is heavily pressured is in Indonesian waters, where it and other large rays are taken intentionally and otherwise by tangle netters, longliners, and trawlers operating off Java, Bali, New Guinea, and Lombok. All landed individuals are brought to market for human consumption.[1]

Off South Africa, the round ribbontail ray is captured incidentally by prawn trawlers on offshore banks, but is not utilized. Because of its size and strength, it is also prized by sport anglers, who usually release it unharmed. South Africa sets a recreational bag limit of one ray per species per person per day, and does not allow spearfishing for this species.[1][17] In Australian waters, this ray has been assessed as of Least Concern. Although it is caught (and discarded) by prawn trawlers, this mortality has been reduced by the mandatory installation of Turtle Excluder Devices (TEDs). Furthermore, a portion of its Australian range lies within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. This species has also been listed under Least Concern in the Maldives where, due to the tourist value of rays, the government has created protected marine reserves and banned the export of rays in 1995 and ray skins in 1996.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Kyne, P.M. and W.T. White (2006). Taeniura meyeni. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
  2. ^ Eschmeyer, W.N., ed. Catalog of Fishes electronic version (February 19, 2010). Retrieved on February 25, 2010.
  3. ^ a b c d Bester, C. Biological Profiles: Blotched Fantail Ray. Florida Museum of Natural History Ichthyology Department. Retrieved on February 25, 2010.
  4. ^ a b c Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2010). "Taeniura meyeni" in FishBase. February 2010 version.
  5. ^ Bull ray, stingray spines. Julian Rocks. Retrieved on February 25, 2010.
  6. ^ Lovejoy, N.R. (1996). "Systematics of myliobatoid elasmobranchs: with emphasis on the phylogeny and historical biogeography of neotropical freshwater stingrays (Potamotrygonidae: Rajiformes)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 117 (3): 207–257. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1996.tb02189.x. 
  7. ^ a b c d Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens (2009). Sharks and Rays of Australia (second ed.). Harvard University Press. pp. 460–461. ISBN 0-674-03411-2. 
  8. ^ Smith, J.L.B., M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (2003). Smiths' Sea Fishes. Struik. p. 141. ISBN 1-86872-890-0. 
  9. ^ a b c d e Grove, J.S. and R.J. Lavenberg (1997). The Fishes of the Galápagos Islands. Stanford University Press. pp. 119–121. ISBN 0-8047-2289-7. 
  10. ^ a b c d e Ferrari, A. and Ferrari, A. (2002). Sharks. FireFly Books. pp. 212–213. ISBN 1-55209-629-7. 
  11. ^ a b c Michael, S.W. (1993). Reef Sharks & Rays of the World. Sea Challengers. p. 89. ISBN 0-930118-18-9. 
  12. ^ a b Hennemann, R.M. (2001). Sharks & Rays: Elasmobranch Guide of the World (second ed.). IKAN – Unterwasserarchiv. pp. 256–259. ISBN 3-925919-33-3. 
  13. ^ Timofeeva, T.A. (1983). "New representatives of monocotylids (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) from cartilaginous fishes of the South China and Yellow Seas". Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta 121: 35–47. 
  14. ^ Chisholm, L.A. and I.D. Whittington (March 2004). "Two new species of Dendromonocotyle Hargis, 1955 (Monogenea : Monocotylidae) from the skin of Taeniura meyeni (Dasyatidae) and Aetobatus narinari (Myliobatidae) from aquaria in Queensland, Australia". Systematic Parasitology 57 (3): 221–228. doi:10.1023/B:SYPA.0000019085.44664.6d. PMID 15010596. 
  15. ^ Whittington, I.D. and G.C. Kearn (2009). "Two new species of entobdelline skin parasites (Monogenea, Capsalidae) from the blotched fantail ray, Taeniura meyeni, in the Pacific Ocean, with comments on spermatophores and the male copulatory apparatus". Acta Parasitologica 54 (1): 12–21. doi:10.2478/s11686-009-0013-7. 
  16. ^ Deardorff, T.L. and R.C. Ko (1983). "Echinocephalus overstreeti sp. N (Nematoda, Gnathostomatidae) in the stingray, Taeniura melanospilos Bleeker, from the Marquesas Islands, with comments on E. sinensis Ko 1975". Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 50 (2): 285–293. 
  17. ^ a b Van der Elst, R. (1993). A Guide to the Common Sea Fishes of Southern Africa (third ed.). Struik. p. 53. ISBN 1-86825-394-5. 
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