Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: grunt (English), roncacho (Espanol), corocoro (Espanol), ronco (Espanol)
 
Pomadasys bayanus Jordan & Evermann, 1898


Purple-mouth grunt,     Freshwater grunt



Elongate, strongly compressed; mouth long, reaches under center of eye, inside not red, lips thin; chin with 2 pores at front and 2 inside hole behind, plus a longitudinal groove; preopercle weakly or not serrated, ventral serrations not forward pointing; dorsal fin XII-XIII, 12, moderately notched; anal III, 7, second anal spine very long and stout, its length about two times eye diameter or more; pectoral fins relatively short, not reaching tips of depressed pelvic fins; pelvics short, not reaching anus (except in small juveniles); no scales on soft dorsal and anal fins; 50-51 pored lateral line scales; 8 oblique rows of scales between lateral line and origin of dorsal fin.


Silvery, with an orange tint on sides; fins orangish; juvenile with wavy stripes.



Size: grows to 36 cm.

Habitat: tolerates salinities between 20-30 ppt, but travels considerable distances up fast moving rivers.

Depth: 0-10 m.



Southern Baja to Peru.
   
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Biology

Benthic-pelagic species of coastal waters which may enter rivers (Ref. 55763). Apparently confined to fresh waters, ascending rivers with moderate currents (Ref. 9114). More abundant near the outlets of rivers and creeks, but not in brackish or marine waters. Reaches at least 640 m elevation and inhabits currents of low to moderate velocity. Feed on crustaceans and fish (Ref. 36880). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9114).
  • McKay, R.J. and M. Schneider 1995 Haemulidae. Burros, corocoros, chulas, gallinazos, roncos. p. 1136-1173. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9114)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9114&speccode=13701 External link.
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Distribution

Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continental TEP endemic, 3 provinces (Cortez + Mexican + Panamic) endemic, Continent, Continent only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
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Central and South America: Pacific drainages from Baja California, Mexico to Peru.
  • McKay, R.J. and M. Schneider 1995 Haemulidae. Burros, corocoros, chulas, gallinazos, roncos. p. 1136-1173. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9114)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9114&speccode=13701 External link.
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Eastern Pacific: Baja California to Ecuador.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 0 (S) - 10 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 36.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 360 mm ---
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Max. size

51.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637)); max. published weight: 1,580 g (Ref. 4699)
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Diagnostic Description

Body oblong, somewhat compressed, and not deep (depth contained 3.1 to 3.8 times in standard length); mouth large, terminal, and almost horizontal, its posterior edge located at the same level as the anterior rim of the eye; first gill arch with 7 to 9 gill rakers; dorsal fin notched, with 12 to 13 spines and 12 soft rays (XII-XIII, 12); pectoral fins short, not reaching distal edge of pelvic fins; second anal spine longer and thicker than third; back olive green; belly silvery; entire body iridescent (Ref. 55763).
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Type Information

Holotype for Pomadasys bayanus
Catalog Number: USNM 30957
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): J. Dow
Locality: Panama, Pacific
  • Holotype: Jordan, D. S. & Evermann, B. W. 1898. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. No. 47: 1331.
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Paratype for Pomadasys bayanus
Catalog Number: USNM 30963
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): J. Dow
Locality: Panama, Rio Bayano, Panama, Pacific
  • Paratype: Jordan, D. S. & Evermann, B. W. 1898. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. No. 47: 1331.
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

benthopelagic; freshwater; brackish; marine
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Depth range based on 21 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.2 - 82.5
  Temperature range (°C): 21.311 - 21.311
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.144 - 0.144
  Salinity (PPS): 34.228 - 34.228
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.074 - 5.074
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.352 - 0.352
  Silicate (umol/l): 3.264 - 3.264

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.2 - 82.5
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Salinity: Brackish, Freshwater, Non Marine

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Near Bottom, Bottom, Bottom + water column

Habitat: Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Soft bottom only, Sand & gravel, Estuary, Freshwater

FishBase Habitat: Bentho-Pelagic
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Trophic Strategy

Benthic-pelagic species of coastal waters that may enter rivers (Ref. 55763). Apparently confined to fresh waters, ascending rivers with moderate currents (Ref. 9114). More abundant near the outlets of rivers and creeks, but not in brackish or marine waters. Reaches at least 640 m elevation and inhabits currents of low to moderate velocity. Feed on crustaceans and fish (Ref. 36880).
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic worms, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves, octopus/squid/cuttlefish
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; price category: medium; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
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