Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Occurs in rocky rapids and cascades in altitudes of 900-1,200 m. Prefers deeper waters (30-60 cm) over cobbles (Ref. 26172). Feeds on benthic invertebrates such as mayfly and caddis fly nymphs, blackfly and midge larvae and small snails. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Breeds during summer and is a partial spawner. Increasing extraction and regulation of river water as well as pollution threaten this species.
  • Skelton, P.H. 1993 A complete guide to the freshwater fishes of southern Africa. Southern Book Publishers. 388 p. (Ref. 7248)
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Distribution

Range Description

Restricted distribution. Known only from a few headwater tributaries (900 to 1,200 m altitude) in the Incomati system in Mpumalanga, South Africa and Swaziland.
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Africa: endemic to the Crocodile-Incomati system.
  • Skelton, P.H. 1993 A complete guide to the freshwater fishes of southern Africa. Southern Book Publishers. 388 p. (Ref. 7248)
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Crocodile-Incomati basin, southeastern Africa.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 68 mm SL
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Max. size

6.8 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 3202))
  • Gosse, J.-P. 1986 Mochokidae. p. 105-152. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels, MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3202)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Rocky habitats in fast flowing streams and rivers. Frequently occurs together with C. anoterus but it typically inhabits deeper runs rather than rapids.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

benthopelagic; freshwater
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Trophic Strategy

Occurs in rocky rapids and cascades in altitudes of 900-1,200 m. Prefers deeper waters (30-60 cm) over cobbles (Ref. 26172). Feeds on benthic invertebrates such as mayfly and caddis fly nymphs, blackfly and midge larvae and small snails. Increasing extraction and regulation of river water as well as pollution threaten this species.
  • Skelton, P.H. 1993 A complete guide to the freshwater fishes of southern Africa. Southern Book Publishers. 388 p. (Ref. 7248)
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Oviparous (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Hides eggs in gravel (Ref. 26172).
  • Kleynhans, C.J. and N.P.E. James 1995 Threatened fishes of the world: Chiloglanis bifurcus Jubb & Ie Roux, 1969 (Mochokidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 43(2):120. (Ref. 26172)
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2007

Assessor/s
Engelbrecht, J. & Bills, R.

Reviewer/s
Snoeks, J. (Freshwater Fish Red List Authority) & Darwall, W. (Freshwater Biodiversity Assessment Unit)

Contributor/s

Justification
Chiloglanis bifurcus is known from a relatively restricted range (extent of occurrence (EOO) less than 5,000 km²; area of occupancy (AOO) less than 500 km²). It is no longer extant at its type locality, probably due to loss of microhabitat. The few populations known (<10) occur in separate tributaries. Threats from habitat degradation, water extraction, and introduced alien species are ongoing. The species is not particularly common, but no data currently are available to be able to determine population size or decline rates, therefore criteria A and C cannot be used. It does, however, meet the thresholds for Endangered under criterion B.

History
  • 1996
    Critically Endangered
  • 1994
    Vulnerable
    (Groombridge 1994)
  • 1990
    Vulnerable
    (IUCN 1990)
  • 1988
    Vulnerable
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
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Population

Population
Not very commonly collected but this is perhaps due to not targeting the correct microhabitats: deeper water flows. However, not as abundant as the co-occurring C. anoterus.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Appears to have gone extinct from its type locality on the Crocodile River near Lydenburg. Probably due to continuous flows released from the Kwena Dam. Additional impacts within the region are sedimentation from forestry and agricultural activities, water extraction resulting in reduced or no flows, introduced alien fishes (O. mykiss and M. salmoides) and pollution from the Ngodwana paper mill. Interestingly, previous spills from the Ngodwana paper mill which caused substantial fish kills do not seem to have affected the present species numbers in the Elands River. Rapid recovery of Elands River populations has occurred. The impacts on genetic diversity on this population is, however, not known.
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Endangered (EN) (B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v))
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The few populations remaining for this species need to be given priority for conservation efforts. Land and water use practices need to be carefully managed and stocking of alien organisms need to be stopped. Probably the best way to effect this would be through conservancy agreements with riparian land owners and Mpumalanga Parks Board.
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Wikipedia

Incomati rock catlet

The incomati rock catlet or incomati suckermouth (Chiloglanis bifurcus) is a species of upside-down catfish native to Mozambique, South Africa and Swaziland where it is only found in the Crocodile-Incomati River system. This species grows to a length of 6.8 centimetres (2.7 in) SL.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Engelbrecht, J. & Bills, R. 2007. Chiloglanis bifurcus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 12 April 2014.
  2. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2014). "Chiloglanis bifurcus" in FishBase. February 2014 version.
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