Regularity: Regularly occurring
Type of Residency: Year-round
Global Range: (20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)) This species is represented by two disjunct populations, east and west of the Mississippi River. (1) Direct tributaries of the Mississippi River and eastern tributaries of the lower Tennessee River, in the Former Mississippi Embayment of western Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, and eastern Louisiana. (2) Arkansas River drainage, eastern Kansas, eastern Oklahoma, southwestern Missouri, and northwestern Arkansas (Page and Burr 2011). The type locality (Ft. Lyon, Colorado) is suspect, and records from the Osage River system and White River are thought to be erroneous (Mayden 1989).
- Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr 1991 A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
Length: 7 cm
- Etnier, D.A. and W.C. Starnes 1993 The fishes of Tennessee. The University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. (pls. check date). (Ref. 10294)
Catalog Number: USNM 15256
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Locality: Ft. Lyon. Colo. T., Colorado, United States, North America
- Lectotype: Gibbs, R. H. 1961. The American Midland Naturalist. 66 (2): 345.; Jordan, D. S. & Meek, S. E. 1884. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 7 (450): 474.; : Gibbs, R. H. 1961. The American Midland Naturalist. 66 (2): 345.; Jordan, D. S. & Meek, S. E. 1884. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 7 (450): 474.; Lectotype: Jordan, D. S. & Meek, S. E. 1884. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 7 (450): 474.
Habitat and Ecology
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Comments: Habitat includes sandy and rocky pools and runs of clear to turbid creeks and small to medium rivers (Pages and Burr 2011); Eastern populations may occur over sand; in west, typically over gravel or rubble (Mayden 1989). Generally this shiner does not occur in low gradient habitats. Adults generally are in fast riffles and raceways; young typically are in or close to these habitats but also in shallow pools (Mayden 1989). Eggs are deposited in crevices.
Arkansas River Benthopelagic Habitat
This taxon is one of a several benthopelagic species in the Arkansas River system. Benthopelagic river fish are found near the river bottom, feeding on benthos and zooplankton.The Arkansas River rises near Leadville, Colorado at an elevation of approximately 3010 meters about thirty kilometers north of Mount Elbert, Colorado's highest peak.
Tthe upper reaches of the Arkansas River manifest turbulent high gradient passage through rugged volcanic terrain; the flow continues to the Royal Gorge, where one of the world's highest suspension bridges towers 320 meters above the river surface; thereafter, the river course flows generally eastward through Kansas, thence southeastward through Oklahoma and Arkansas until its discharge to the Mississippi River. The river basin also includes parts of the states of New Mexico, Texas and Missouri.
Chief tributaries of the Arkansas River are Purgatoire River, Fountain Creek, Pawnee River, Salt Fork River, Illinois River,Verdigris River, Neosho River, Cimarron River and the Canadian River. The mean annual discharge at Little Rock, Arkansas is approximately 1118 cubic meters per second, a level remarkably undifferentiated from virgin flow, before the era of locks, impoundments and extraction.
Water quality at the headwaters near Leadville, Colorado is quite high, consisting of cold, rapidly flowing water of pH 6.3. Concentrations of calcium, sodium, magnesium and chloride are all less than ten milligrams per liter in this pristine headwaters area.
Crossing the Southern Plains below Great Bend, Kansas, the pH elevates to a level of 8.0, sodium concentrations rise to a range of 300 to 500 mg/l, with other ions rising by similar large percentages. After receiving the more pristine runoff from the Ozark Plateau, below Fort Smith, Arkansas, the pH level can be measured as low as 7.5, and sodium along with other ion concentrations are reduced by a factor of four. At the Mississippi Embayment, nitrate and phosphate levels are elevated due to row crop agricultural runoff of this region.
There are 141 species of fish present in the Arkansas basin, including two near endemic benthopelagic species: slough darter (Etheostoma gracile) and speckled darter (Etheostoma stigmae). The federally threatened and near-endemic Neosho madtom (Noturus placidus) occurs in the Neosho River, a tributary that rises in the Flint Hills. Also present in the Neosho River is the endangered Topeka shiner (Notropis topeka). The cardinal shiner (Luxilus cardinalis) is a near-endemic that is now restricted to populations in the Arkansas River and Red River, and disjunctive populations in the Neosho River.
In the upper Arkansas River mainstem a number of reptiles are found in the upper basin, including yellow mud turtle (Kinosternon flavescens), midland smooth softshell (Apalone mutica), western spiny softshell turtle (Apalone spinifera hartwegi) and northern water snake (Nerodia sipedon). In the downriver portions of the basin (Eastern Oklahoma and Arkansas) are found the false map turtle (Graptemys pseudogeographica) and the venomous cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus).
- C.Michael Hogan. 2012. ''Arkansas River. Encyclopedia of Earth, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DC ed. Peter Saundry; ed.in-chief Cutler J.Cleveland
- Fishbase. 2010. Species in the Arkansas River. http://www.fishbase.org/trophiceco/FishEcoList.php?ve_code=56
Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.
Number of Occurrences
Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.
Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).
100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but apparently quite large (likely greater than 100,000). This fish is generally common; abundant in western Tennessee and in the Neosho River system in Missouri and Oklahoma (Page and Burr 1991).
Life History and Behavior
Spawns late spring and early summer (usually early June to mid-July) in Kansas/Missouri, at temperature of at least 25 C. In Kansas, lives up to 2-3 years.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Cyprinella camura
Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.
See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.
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Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cyprinella camura
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure
Total adult population size is unknown but apparently quite large (likely greater than 100,000). This fish is generally common; abundant in western Tennessee and in the Neosho River system in Missouri and Oklahoma (Page and Burr 1991).
Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.
Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable (=10% change)
Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.
Comments: No major threats are known.
Names and Taxonomy
Comments: Removed from genus NOTROPIS and placed in genus (formerly subgenus) CYPRINELLA by Mayden (1989); this change was adopted in the 1991 AFS checklist (Robins et al. 1991). The two disjunct populations may warrant recognition as separate subspecies or species (Gibbs 1961, Mayden 1989).