Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Affinities: H. paugyi, H. pictus, H. harringtoni (Ref. 2915).
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General Description

From Boulenger 1909 Catalogue of the Fresh-Water Fishes of Africa in the British Museum (Natural History) Vol. 1 p. 113

Depth of body 3 ½ times in total length, length of head 5 times. Head as long as deep, with curved upper profile; snout ¼ length of head ; teeth bicuspid, 5 in upper jaw (4-5), 6 (5-7) in lower; a slight swelling of the chin; eye rather large, equal to length of snout, ¾ interorbital width. Dorsal and anal fins equally developed and exactly opposed to each other, former with 31 rays (29-36), latter with 33 (31-36), equally distant from caudal and from base of ventrals. Pectoral pointed, as long as head, reaching beyond base of ventral, which is about half as long. Caudal with pointed lobes, scaled on more than half its extent. Caudal peduncle 3 times as long as deep, as long as head. 78 scales in lateral line, 18/17 in transverse series on body, 16/16 between dorsal and anal, 12 round caudal peduncle. Brown or dark olive with yellowish bars, two of which enclose a sort of blackish rhomb between the anterior rays of the dorsal and those of the anal, which bear a black bar; a black band on the pectoral and ventral and on each lobe of the caudal. Total length (of type) 140 mm. Maximum observed size: 300 mm.

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Distribution

Range Description

This species is patchily distributed from Guinea to Ethiopia.

Northeast Africa: It is present in the White Nile at Khartoum, Sudan, as well as Baro River, Ethiopia.

Western Africa: It occurs in the large Sahelo-Sudanese basins. Also collected in the Sassandra, the Mono, in Ghana and in Cameroon.
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Africa: White Nile, Cameroon (Bénoué, Chari, and Logone Rivers), Nigeria, Ghana (Gold Coast), Burkina-Faso (Upper Volta), as well as in Togo (Mono) and Côte d'Ivoire (Sassandra River). Also known from the Niger and Chad basins (Ref. 2915).
  • Gosse, J.-P. 1984 Mormyridae. p. 63-122. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 1. (Ref. 3203)
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H. pictus is distributed in the Sahelo-Sudanien basins (Nile, Niger, Bénoué, Chad, Volta) as well as the Mono (Togo), the Sassandra (Côte d'Ivoire), drainages in Ghana and in the Cross Basin of Cameroon. Type specimen was from Fashoda, now Kodok, on the White Nile in southern Sudan (9°53′N 32°07′E).
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Africa.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 29 - 39; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 30 - 36
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Size

Maximum size: 300 mm SL
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Max. size

30.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 2915)); max. published weight: 100.0 g (Ref. 3799)
  • Ita, E.O. 1984 Kainji (Nigeria). p. 43-103. In J.M. Kapetsky and T. Petr (eds.) Status of African reservoir fisheries. CIFA Tech. Pap. 10:326 p. (Ref. 3799)
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Diagnostic Description

Concave back profile. Dorsal and anal fins on same level. Body height 3.2-4.8 x SL. Chin less developed than H. paugyi. Caudal peduncle height 3.2-4.9 x of its length. Nasal openings forming 45° angle with body axis.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species occurs in most coastal rivers, lakes and swamps. It prefers quiet, deep water, like channels and lagoons of large floodplains. Demersal. Juveniles and fry inhabit well-vegetated marginal habitats. Adults feed on fish, juveniles feed on small invertebrates and fish. Multiple spawner; breeds over the summer months. Relatively short-lived, only 4-5 years. Also caught with drawnets.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

demersal; freshwater
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Electric Organ Discharge

The EOD of Hippopotamyrus pictus is triphasic and short: about 0.25 milleseconds in total duration. There is a weak head-negative pre-pulse (P0), followed by a head-postive first phase (P1) and a head-negative second phase (P2).
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Entsua-Mensah, M., Getahun, A. & Lalèyè, P.

Reviewer/s
Snoeks, J., Tweddle, D., Getahun, A., Lalèyè, P., Paugy, D., Zaiss, R., Fishar, M.R.A & Brooks, E.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has a wide distribution, with no known major widespread threats, although deforestation may have a negative impact on some populations. It is therefore listed as Least Concern. It has also been assessed regionally as Least Concern for western Africa. More information is needed on this species distribution in northeast Africa is needed before it can be regionally assessed, and it is therefore categorized as Data Deficient.
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Population

Population
No recent records.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Locally impacted in western Africa by deforestation.
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Unknown.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial
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