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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Mainly in oceanic locations (Ref. 48635); inhabits inner and outer reef slopes (Ref. 30404). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Mucus is toxic (Ref. 1602).
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Distribution

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and Transkei, South Africa (Ref. 3257) to the Hawaiian and Marquesan islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to New Caledonia.
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Natal (South Africa), Seychelles and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Queensland (Australia) at 23°30'S and New Caledonia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 0
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Size

Maximum size: 1800 mm NG
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Max. size

180 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710))
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Found in seaward reefs in the Red Sea at 4 m or more. Usually found in more than 30 m elsewhere. It's mucus is toxic.
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Large individuals; body dark yellow-brown numerous, smaller than pupil-sized spots that become small and numerous anteriorly, but large and widely spaced posteriorly (Ref. 48635). Yellow inside the mouth (Ref. 30404, 48635). This species has a relatively short, blunt snout; the larger specimens lack vomerine teeth and median intermaxillary teeth; the largest teeth are finely serrate; and jaws not arched, even in large specimens (Ref. 74922).
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Type Information

Type for Gymnothorax xanthostomus Snyder
Catalog Number: USNM 50869
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration; Radiograph
Year Collected: 1902
Locality: Honolulu Mkt., Hawaii, Oahu, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Islands, Pacific
Vessel: Albatross
  • Type: Snyder, J. O. 1904. Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission. 22 (for 1902): 519, pl. 5.
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Ecology

Habitat

Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 2 - 271 m (Ref. 58302), usually 30 - ? m (Ref. 30404)
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Depth range based on 4 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 15.5 - 88
  Temperature range (°C): 24.485 - 24.485
  Nitrate (umol/L): 5.255 - 5.255
  Salinity (PPS): 34.431 - 34.431
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.591 - 3.591
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.567 - 0.567
  Silicate (umol/l): 10.063 - 10.063

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 15.5 - 88
 
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Depth: 4 - 165m.
From 4 to 165 meters.

Habitat: demersal. Starry moray.  (Gunther, 1867)  Attains 100cm. Known only from Transkei to Zanzibar, Red Sea and Hawai.
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits inner and outer reef slopes (Ref. 30404).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Gymnothorax nudivomer

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Gymnothorax nudivomer

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
  • Miyasaka, A. 1993 A database on scientific and common names of fishes exported from Hawaii. The information was derived from the above mentioned database. A printout of the names is also available from the State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources, 1151 Punchbowl Street, Honolulu, Hawaii. (Ref. 5358)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5358&speccode=4306 External link.
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Wikipedia

Gymnothorax nudivomer

The starry moray or yellow-mouthed moray,[1] Gymnothorax nudivomer, is a moray eel from the Indo-Pacific. It is found in reef-associated marine evironments (inner and outer reef slopes) in tropical areas. This species can be found in the Red Sea and near Transkei, South Africa, the Hawaiian and Marquesan Islands, the Ryukyu Islands, and south to New Caledonia. This species can be used for aquaria and commercially.[2] The mouth of the starry moray is bright yellow, and the openings by the gills are dark-colored. Its body is light brown with white spots, and its teeth are arranged in a row on both of its jaws. [3] This species also secreted toxins from its skin[4] and mucus.[5]

A starry moray at Aliwal Shoal

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Gymnothorax nudivomer". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 23 February 2013. 
  2. ^ "Gymnothorax nudivomer". Fish Base. Retrieved 23 February 2013. 
  3. ^ "Yellowmouth Moray, Gymnothorax nudivomer (Playfair & Gunther, 1867)". Australian Museum. Retrieved 23 February 2013. 
  4. ^ "Gymnothorax nudivomer". Bishop Museum. Retrieved 23 February 2013. 
  5. ^ "Gymnothorax nudivomer (Günther, 1867)". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 23 February 2013. 
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