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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Mainly in oceanic locations (Ref. 48635); inhabits inner and outer reef slopes (Ref. 30404). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Mucus is toxic (Ref. 1602).
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Distribution

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and Transkei, South Africa (Ref. 3257) to the Hawaiian and Marquesan islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to New Caledonia.
  • Myers, R.F. 1999 Micronesian reef fishes: a comprehensive guide to the coral reef fishes of Micronesia, 3rd revised and expanded edition. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 330 p. (Ref. 37816)
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Natal (South Africa), Seychelles and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Queensland (Australia) at 23°30'S and New Caledonia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 0
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Size

Maximum size: 1800 mm NG
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Max. size

180 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710))
  • Lieske, E. and R. Myers 1994 Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific & Caribbean including the Red Sea. Haper Collins Publishers, 400 p. (Ref. 9710)
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Found in seaward reefs in the Red Sea at 4 m or more. Usually found in more than 30 m elsewhere. It's mucus is toxic.
  • Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2014). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Large individuals; body dark yellow-brown numerous, smaller than pupil-sized spots that become small and numerous anteriorly, but large and widely spaced posteriorly (Ref. 48635). Yellow inside the mouth (Ref. 30404, 48635). This species has a relatively short, blunt snout; the larger specimens lack vomerine teeth and median intermaxillary teeth; the largest teeth are finely serrate; and jaws not arched, even in large specimens (Ref. 74922).
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Type Information

Type for Gymnothorax xanthostomus Snyder
Catalog Number: USNM 50869
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration; Radiograph
Year Collected: 1902
Locality: Honolulu market, Oahu, Hawaii., Oahu, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Archipelago, Pacific
Vessel: Albatross
  • Type: Snyder, J. O. 1904. Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission. 22 (for 1902): 519, pl. 5.
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Ecology

Habitat

Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 2 - 271 m (Ref. 58302), usually 30 - ? m (Ref. 30404)
  • Kuiter, R.H. 1998 Photo guide to fishes of the Maldives. Atoll Editions, Victoria, Australia. 257 p. (Ref. 30404)
  • Mundy, B.C. 2005 Checklist of the fishes of the Hawaiian Archipelago. Bishop Museum Bulletins in Zoology. Bishop Mus. Bull. Zool. (6):1-704. (Ref. 58302)
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Depth range based on 4 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 15.5 - 88
  Temperature range (°C): 24.485 - 24.485
  Nitrate (umol/L): 5.255 - 5.255
  Salinity (PPS): 34.431 - 34.431
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.591 - 3.591
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.567 - 0.567
  Silicate (umol/l): 10.063 - 10.063

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 15.5 - 88
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 4 - 165m.
From 4 to 165 meters.

Habitat: demersal. Starry moray.  (Gunther, 1867)  Attains 100cm. Known only from Transkei to Zanzibar, Red Sea and Hawai.
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits inner and outer reef slopes (Ref. 30404).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Gymnothorax nudivomer

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Gymnothorax nudivomer

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
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Wikipedia

Starry moray eel

The starry moray (Gymnothorax nudivomer), or also called the yellow-mouthed moray, is a species of marine fish in the family Muraenidae.

Description[edit]

The starry moray is a large sized fish that can reach a maximum length of 180 cm, but the ones usually observed are rather smaller.[1] Its serpentine in shape body has a brown background color dotted with small white spots circled with darker brown than its background color. The size of these spots is relatively small at the head and is getting larger toward the tail. One of the characteristic point to identify this moray is the yellow color of its inside mouth. The gills aperture is brown dark.

Distribution & habitat[edit]

The starry moray is widespread throughout the Indo-Pacific area from eastern coast of Africa, Red Sea included, until Polynesia and Hawaii and from south Japan to New Caledonia.[2]

Gymnothorax nudivomer

It lives on the outer slopes of coral reefs, the day it sits sheltered in crevices between 1 and 271 meters deep, but usually seen at depth around 30 meters.[3][4]

Biology[edit]

The starry moray is a solitary carnivorous, it leaves its lair at night to actively hunt its preys along the reef. It mainly feeds on fishes.

A starry moray at Aliwal Shoal

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lieske, E. and R. Myers, 1994. Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific & Caribbean including the Red Sea. Haper Collins Publishers, 400 p.
  2. ^ Castle, P.H.J. and J.E. McCosker, 1986. Muraenidae. p. 165-176. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
  3. ^ Mundy, B.C., 2005. Checklist of the fishes of the Hawaiian Archipelago. Bishop Museum Bulletins in Zoology. Bishop Mus. Bull. Zool. (6):1-704.
  4. ^ Kuiter, R.H., 1998. Photo guide to fishes of the Maldives. Atoll Editions, Victoria, Australia. 257 p.
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