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BiologyFound on the continental and insular shelves, from the surf line and intertidal region to deeper water (Ref. 244). Feeds on small bony fishes (including sea horses), prawns, and squid (Ref. 9997). Viviparous (Ref. 50449). Specimens caught with size ranging from 37.0-67.4 cm TL were found to be immature, males apparently begin to mature around 71.0 cm TL and birth size is between 32.0 and 37.0 cm TL (Ref. 89954). Often caught by shore anglers (Ref. 5485). Utilized as a food fish (Ref. 244).