Overview

Comprehensive Description

Coris julis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Aegean Sea : 18400-386 (1 spc.), 30.01.1969 , Guemueslue Seaport , M. Demir ; 18400-394 (5 spc.), 30.01.1969 , Guemueslue Seaport , M. Demir ; 18400-83 (1 spc.), 24.01.1969 , Goekova Bay , M. Demir .

  • Nurettin Meriç, Lütfiye Eryilmaz, Müfit Özulug (2007): A catalogue of the fishes held in the Istanbul University, Science Faculty, Hydrobiology Museum. Zootaxa 1472, 29-54: 48-48, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:428F3980-C1B8-45FF-812E-0F4847AF6786
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Biology

Occurs in the littoral zone, near rocks and eelgrass beds. Usually found between 1-60 m, but old males stay in deeper water. Found in deeper waters during winter. Sometimes solitary, among rocks, often with numerous specimens in its immediate vicinity. Buries itself in sand at night or when frightened. Feeds on small gastropods, sea urchins, shrimps, worms, isopods and amphipods. Sexually mature when 1 year old. Protogynous species; females change sex to become males; specimen above 18 cm length are all males (Ref. 35388). Pelagic eggs (Ref. 4742).
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Distribution

Range Description

In the Eastern Atlantic, this species has a possibly disjunct northern European distribution from central Norway to Spain and Portugal, and thence occurs southwards along the West African coastline to around Senegal. It is not present around the United Kingdom or Ireland. It is also reported from the Azores, Selvagens, Madeira and the Canary Islands. Specimens from the Cape Verde Islands and Sao Tome Principe, and along the mainland coastline from around Senegal southwards to Gabon, belong to the closely related species Coris atlantica (Randall 1999, Guillemaud et al. 2000).

This species is present along most of the Mediterranean coastline, including around most of the main Mediterranean islands. In the eastern Mediterranean basin, however, this species is rare, being absent from Cyprus and Israel, though one location is known from Lebanon. It is present in the Sea of Marmara and the far western part of the Black Sea (in Turkey and Bulgaria).
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Eastern Atlantic: Sweden to south of Cape Lopez, Gabon. Also known from the Mediterranean Sea. Specimen of Coris from Cape Verde and Senegal southward are probably Coris atlantica (Ref. 33411), here still treated as a junior synonym pending a definite publication of validity.
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Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: Norway to Gabon including Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 8 - 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 11 - 12; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 11 - 12
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Size

Maximum size: 300 mm ---
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Max. size

30.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 2683)); max. reported age: 7 years (Ref. 72479)
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Diagnostic Description

Snout with 4-6 cephalic pores. Spiny rays flexible. No scales on head and on base of dorsal and anal fins. Vertebrae 25-26. Males: first 3 dorsal rays elongated, with an orange or red and black spot. Along the flanks, a- longitudinal zigzag orange or red stripe. Females and juveniles: a longitudinal large whitish stripe along flanks, a mid-longitudinal zigzag, dark brown stripe.
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Type Information

Type for Julis azorensis
Catalog Number: USNM 42127
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Collector(s): W. Brown
Year Collected: 1889
Locality: Horta, Tayal, Azores, Faial Island, Azores, Atlantic
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This common species generally occurs in littoral and inshore coastal waters around rocks and over seagrass beds. During the winter it can be found in deeper waters. It is typically found in aggregations but can also be found as solitary individuals, especially in rocky habitats. During the night, or when disturbed, it can bury itself in the sand. The eggs and larvae are planktonic (Golani et al. 2006).

It feeds on small gastropods, sea urchins, worms, shrimps, isopods and amphipods. Small individuals are known to clean other fishes.

It reaches sexual maturity at one year and is a protogynous hermaphrodite with pronounced sexual dimorphism (Golani et al. 2006). The females change to males before reaching 18 cm in length. All individuals above 18 cm in length are males (Muus and Nielsen 1999). Sex change can take from several weeks up to 5.5 months (Sadovy and Shapiro 1987, Reinboth 1962, Muus and Nielsen 1999).

It reproduces from May to August. Larger terminal phase males hold territories and spawn sequentially with haremic females, smaller terminal phase males can live in groups up to several tens of individuals. Initial phase males live and spawn in large groups, pelagic spawning and eggs (P. Afonso pers. comm. 2008).

Mediterranean and Atlantic populations show strong morphological and genetic differentiation (Aurelle et al. 2003).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 0 - 120 m (Ref. 27115), usually 1 - 60 m (Ref. 4742)
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Depth range based on 23 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 20 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 5.5 - 180
  Temperature range (°C): 15.629 - 22.530
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.403 - 8.951
  Salinity (PPS): 35.350 - 38.944
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.308 - 5.382
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.070 - 0.673
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.778 - 4.203

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 5.5 - 180

Temperature range (°C): 15.629 - 22.530

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.403 - 8.951

Salinity (PPS): 35.350 - 38.944

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.308 - 5.382

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.070 - 0.673

Silicate (umol/l): 1.778 - 4.203
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 0 - 120m.
Recorded at 120 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
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Trophic Strategy

Only old males deeper, occurs deeper during winter. Buries itself in the sand at night or when frightened. Acts sometimes as cleaner.
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Females change sex to males before 18 cm TL. Sex reversal is completed in several weeks up to 5.5 months (Ref. 34185, 34255, 35388).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Coris julis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

AAAGATATTGGTACCCTCTATTTAGTATTTGGTGCCTGAGCCGGAATGGTCGGCACGGCTTTA---AGCCTGCTCATTCGAGCGGAACTAAGCCAGCCCGGCGCACTCCTTGGAGAT---GACCAGATTTATAATGTGATCGTTACGGCACACGCATTCGTGATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATTATGATCGGCGGATTCGGCAACTGACTAATCCCCCTAATG---ATTGGGGCACCTGATATGGCCTTCCCTCGAATAAATAACATGAGCTTCTGACTTCTGCCCCCCTCGTTCCTCCTCCTCCTGGCGTCATCTGGCGTAGAAGCGGGGGCTGGGACTGGCTGAACAGTATATCCCCCTTTAGCAGGGAACCTCGCCCATGCTGGTGCGTCCGTAGATCTA---ACTATCTTTTCCTTGCACCTAGCTGGTATTTCGTCAATCCTAGGAGCAATTAACTTCATTACAACCATTATTAACATAAAACCCCCAACCATCTCTCAATATCAAACACCCTTGTTTGTCTGGGCTGTTCTGATTACAGCCGTTCTACTACTTCTCTCCCTACCCGTCCTTGCTGCC---GGCATCACGATGCTCCTTACAGACCGAAACTTAAACACCACCTTTTTTGACCCGGCTGGAGGGGGGGACCCTATTCTTTATCAACACTTGTTTTGATTTTTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Coris julis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Pollard, D. & Afonso, P.

Reviewer/s
Russell, B. & Carpenter, K.E.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread and common in the Mediterranean Sea, where its population is showing signs of increasing in the Gulf of Lion (France). It is also present off the eastern Atlantic coastlines of Europe and West Africa (at least as far south as Senegal, southwards of which it is replaced by a separate species, C. atlantica), and there are few major threats to its populations. Therefore, this species is listed as Least Concern globally.
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Population

Population
Populations of this species are apparently increasing in the Gulf of Lion (France, north-western Mediterranean Sea). This may be explained by water temperatures having increased there due to the construction of numerous dams on the Rhone River, which have reduced cold water inflow, though climate change may also be playing a part. Another hypothesis which has been offered to help explain these population increases could possibly be the installation of artificial reefs, providing an increase in suitable reef habitat.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
In some areas of the Mediterranean this species is caught in commercial fisheries. Many specimens are also captured for the local aquarium trade. In the Macaronesian islands it is caught in the small-scale, artisanal fishery (P. Afonso pers. comm. 2008).
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, it can be found within Marine Protected Areas within its distributional range.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial; price category: very high; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
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Wikipedia

Mediterranean rainbow wrasse

The Mediterranean rainbow wrasse, Coris julis, is a small, colourful fish in the family Labridae. It can be found in the Mediterranean Sea and in the northeast Atlantic Ocean from Sweden to Senegal (though it is absent from the British Isles).[2] Records of this species south from Senegal and the Cape Verde Islands are actually the closely related Coris atlantica.[2]

It feeds on amphipods, isopods, sea urchins, polychaete, shrimps, and small gastropods.[2]

Description[edit]

A secondary-phase male with two smaller initial-phase individuals in the background in Croatia (Mediterranean population)

Like many wrasses, C. julis is a sequential hermaphrodite: All start in the smaller initial phase. These initial-phase individuals (both females and males) can turn into the larger secondary-phase males.[3] At a length of about 18 cm (7.1 in), all individuals are secondary-phase males.[2] The maximum length for the species is 25 cm (9.8 in). There is a marked difference in the appearance of the two phases. In the Mediterranean Sea, the secondary-phase male is green, blue, or brown, with white belly, a dark blue spot over the ventral fin, and a bright orange band on the side, while the smaller primary-phase females and males are brown with yellowish sides and white bellies.[4] Populations in the Atlantic differ in colour and genetics from the Mediterranean population, but are maintained in a single species at present.[1][3] If found to be separate, the scientific name Coris festiva (at present considered a synonym of C. julis) is available for the Atlantic population.

Habitat[edit]

It is typically found near the shore in places with seagrass or rocks. It is usually found at depths of 0–60 m (0–200 ft), but occurs as deep as 120 m (390 ft).[2]

Synonyms[edit]

The following specific names are considered junior synonyms of C. julis:[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Pollard, D. & Afonso, P. 2010. Coris julis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 06 November 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Coris julis" in FishBase. July 2013 version.
  3. ^ a b Aurelle, D., Guillemaud, T., Afonso, P., Morato, T., Wirtz, P., Santos, R.S.S., and Cancela, M.L. (2003). Genetic study of Coris julis (Osteichthyes, Perciformes, Labridae) evolutionary history and dispersal abilities. Comptes Rendus Biologies 326(8): 771-785.
  4. ^ Egidio Patrick Louisy Trainito, ed. (2006). Guida all'identificazione dei pesci marini d'Europa e del Mediterraneo. Milan: Il Castello. ISBN 88-8039-472-X. 
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