- Compagno, L.J.V. 1984 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 247)
- Clark, J. 1963 Aquarium records. Not given. (Ref. 72467)
- Compagno, L.J.V. 2001 Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Vol. 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). FAO Spec. Cat. Fish. Purp. 1(2):269p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 43278)
Habitat and Ecology
Oviparous. Information on reproduction and growth is only available from captivity (Masuda and Teshima 1994, Miki 1994, Masuda 1998). Females deposit two egg capsules at a time, on average every 6 to 7 days from spring to summer (Masuda 1998), or about every six days from winter to spring (Miki 1994). Hatching period: range 110 to 135 days (Miki 1994); average 128.2 days (Masuda 1998); and, average 126 ± 9.2 days, range 116 to 144 days (Tullis and Peterson 2000). Average length at birth was 16.6 cm TL (Miki 1994, Masuda 1998). The maximum laying season reported by Miki (1994) of 87 days yielded 26 eggs from an individual, 11 of which failed to develop.
In captivity, some variation in growth rates have been reported. Masuda (1998) reported individuals reaching 30 cm TL after one year, while Miki (1994) reported 42.1 cm TL after five months! The species has been reported to live in captivity for 25 years (Michael 1993).
Life history parameters
Age at maturity (years): Unknown.
Size at maturity (total length): Female: unknown; Male: 50 to 64 cm TL.
Longevity: Uncertain, but reported to 25 years in captivity (Michael 1993).
Maximum size (total length): 95 cm TL.
Size at birth: 9.8 cm TL or smaller (Compagno 2001); 16.6 cm TL (average in captivity; Miki 1994, Masuda 1998).
Average reproductive age (years): Unknown.
Gestation time: Hatching period (in captivity): range 110 to 135 days (Miki 1994); average 128.2 days (Masuda 1998); and, average 126 ± 9.2 days, range 116 to 144 days (Tullis and Peterson 2000).
Reproductive periodicity: Unknown.
Average annual fecundity or litter size: In captivity: maximum of 26 eggs per laying season (Miki 1994).
Annual rate of population increase: Unknown.
Natural mortality: Unknown.
- Allen, G.R. and M.V. Erdmann 2012 Reef fishes of the East Indies. Perth, Australia: Universitiy of Hawai'i Press, Volumes I-III. Tropical Reef Research. (Ref. 90102)
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.
Depth range (m): 40 - 82.3
Temperature range (°C): 25.857 - 25.857
Nitrate (umol/L): 3.610 - 3.610
Salinity (PPS): 34.451 - 34.451
Oxygen (ml/l): 4.008 - 4.008
Phosphate (umol/l): 0.392 - 0.392
Silicate (umol/l): 4.097 - 4.097
Depth range (m): 40 - 82.3
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.
Life History and Behavior
Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Chiloscyllium plagiosum
Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.
See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.
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Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Chiloscyllium plagiosum
Public Records: 17
Specimens with Barcodes: 24
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
Pressure on coral reef systems is high over much of the species' range with the amount of available habitat being reduced in recent history due to the degradation/destruction of coral reefs through such practices as dynamite fishing (e.g., Indonesia and elsewhere) and terrestrial runoff (e.g., through logging in Philippines).
Given human population increases in the Asian region and continued and increasing exploitation of marine resources the conservation status of this coral reef species is of concern.
Any measures to protect, maintain and restore coral reef habitats in Asia will benefit this and other species of reef-dwelling elasmobranchs.
The development and implementation of management plans (national and/or regional e.g., under the FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks: IPOA-Sharks) are required to facilitate the conservation and sustainable management of all chondrichthyan species in the region. At the time of writing, development of a regional Plan of Action (under the IPOA-Sharks) was underway by Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. In addition, Malaysia has a separate draft National Plan of Action (NPOA) available, and the Philippines and Indonesia are also taking steps towards developing their separate NPOAs. India stated its intention to prepare a NPOA in the near future; China stated it was working towards development and implementation; and Taiwan and Sri Lanka had not yet stated any intention to develop NPOAs. In developing these management plans, it is vital for countries not to overlook the main aims of the IPOA-Sharks: to improve species-specific catch and landings data collection, and the monitoring and management of shark fisheries. This will not be achieved if the plans do not include adequate data collection, monitoring and management measures. Improved management of shark fisheries will not occur if even the most detailed of the management plans are simply not implemented once prepared (Anon. 2004).
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Whitespotted bamboo shark
The whitespotted bamboo shark, Chiloscyllium plagiosum, is a carpet shark with an adult size that approaches one metre in length  This small, mostly nocturnal species is harmless to humans. The whitespotted bamboo shark is occasionally kept as a pet in larger home aquariums. It can grow up to 93 centimetres (37 in) long.
Dorsal fins with convex posterior margins. Color pattern of white and dark spots, with dark bands and a brown body. The coloration is unique in this family making it very simple for identification. The teeth of bamboo sharks are not strongly differentiated. Each tooth has a medial cusp and weak labial root lobes with 26–35 teeth on the upper jaw and 21–32 teeth on the lower jaw. Bamboo Sharks commonly rest on the bottom of their habitat with their head and trunk propped up by resting on their bent and depressed pectoral fins.  Whitespotted bamboo sharks have a very distinct dorsal fin that can alter or effect where they choose to live, as well as their mobility methods. 
These sharks are found on coral reefs of the Pacific Ocean. They are common in the coastal areas of Indonesia and surrounding waters, but the species' range extends from Japan to India  These sharks are also used for human consumption in Madagascar  and Taiwan.
These sharks feed at night, preying on small fish and invertebrates. They have small teeth that can be used for grasping or crushing prey. Soft prey is grasped when the tips of the teeth sink into the flesh, but the teeth pivot backwards when biting hard prey. This protects the tooth tip and allows the flattened front surface of the teeth to form a continuous plate for crushing crabs.  Juvenile sharks need a higher intake of carbon than adults sharks, especially during the wet seasons. White spotted bamboo sharks have an advantage in finding carbon sources because they are benthic predators (meaning they prey on fish near the sea-bottom), as opposed to pelagic sharks like the spadenose shark. That, combined with the fact that these species of sharks have, like most sharks, electroreceptors (ampulae of lorenzini) along their snout to help them locate prey that is buried in the sand and mud, makes them very efficient users of detrital carbon resources.
Whitespotted bamboo sharks are oviparous (egg laying). The eggs are approximately five inches long and hatch after 14 or 15 weeks. The young hatch out at approximately 6 inches in length. Doug Sweet, curator of fishes at the Belle Isle Aquarium in Detroit reports that in July 2002 a clutch of eggs from a female whitespotted bamboo shark hatched without any apparent fertilization This appears to be the first reported example of parthenogenesis in this species.
A female Chiloscyllium plagiosum that had no contact with a male for 6 years, gave birth to 3 young at the Belle Isle Aquarium in Detroit, Michigan. There are many theories for this incident but none are confirmed. The species have been found and collected at Ternate Island, Halmahera Island, Indonesia and generally the palearctic region in Asia. Among these theories, the three most likely would be that the female contains both the male and the female reproductive organs; the female has the ability to store sperm for that long; and lastly that the female has somehow stimulated the eggs without sperm, process called parthenogenesis.
Three albino whitespotted bamboo sharks have hatched at SeaWorld of Orlando Downtown Aquarium in Denver Colorado has had annual hatchings of albino whitespotted bamboo sharks since 2007 and they currently have some displayed on exhibit.
Because of their small size and bottom-dwelling lifestyle, these are one of the more common species of sharks to be kept in home aquariums. They feed and breed readily in captivity. Because of this, they can be purchased from many sources. Adult specimens will require tanks of at least 180 gallons, and preferably more. Captive specimens may be fed chunks of squid, shrimp, clams, scallops and marine fish, as well as live ghost shrimp.
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- Compagno, Leonard. "Sharks of the world." Shark Research Center Iziko-Museums of Cape Town. NO. 1. Vol 2. Cape Town South Africa: FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS, 2002. Pg 173
- Bester, Cathleen. "WHITESPOTTED BAMBOOSHARK." Florida Museum of Natural History. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 April 2010.
- Wilga, C.D. and Lauder, G.V. (2001) Functional morphology of the pectoral fins in bamboo sharks, Chiloscyllium plagiosum: benthic vs. pelagic station-holding. Journal of Morphology, 249: 195-205.
- Maia, A. and Wilga, C. D. (2013), Anatomy and muscle activity of the dorsal fins in bamboo sharks and spiny dogfish during turning maneuvers. J. Morphol., 274: 1288–1298. doi: 10.1002/jmor.20179
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- Chen, Wei-Ke and Liu Kwan-Ming "Reproductive biology of whitespotted bamboo shark Chiloscyllium plagiosum in northern waters off Taiwan" Fisheries Science 72: 1215-1224
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- National Geographic, (2002). Shark gives virgin birth in Detroit. Retrieved Apr. 17, 2010, from Nationalgeographic.com Web site: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/09/0925_020925_virginshark.html.
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- General references
- Kyne & Burgess (2005). Chiloscyllium plagiosum. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 10 May 2006. Database entry includes justification for why this species is near threatened
- Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2005). "Chiloscyllium plagiosum" in FishBase. 10 2005 version.
- "Chiloscyllium plagiosum". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 25 January 2006.
[[Category:Animals described in 1830]