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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

A common but little-known inshore bottom shark (Ref. 247). Feeds on bony fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 43278). Oviparous (Ref. 43278, 50449). Utilized for human consumption (Ref. 247) and used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166). Caught by multiple hook and line and trawl (Ref. 47736). Caught rarely by demersal gillnet fisheries operating inshore (Ref.58048).
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Distribution

Range Description

Indo-West Pacific: India to southern Japan. Has not been confirmed between India and Thailand (e.g., Bangladesh and Myanmar).
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Indo-West Pacific: India, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Viet Nam, China, Taiwan, Japan, the Philippines, and probably Malaysia. Reported from Korea (Ref. 45255).
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Indo-West Pacific.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 0
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Size

Maximum size: 690 mm TL
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Max. size

83.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 43278)); 95 cm TL (female); max. reported age: 25 years (Ref. 72467)
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Diagnostic Description

Genus: Nostrils subterminal on snout; pre-oral snout long, mouth closer to eyes than snout tip; eyes and supraorbital ridges hardly elevated; no black hood on head or large spot or spots on sides of body above pectoral fins (Ref. 43278). Caudal fin with a pronounced subterminal notch but without a ventral lobe (Ref. 13575). Genus: Nostrils subterminal on snout; pre-oral snout long, mouth closer to eyes than snout tip; eyes and supraorbital ridges hardly elevated; no black hood on head or large spot or spots on sides of body above pectoral fins (Ref. 43278). Caudal fin with a pronounced subterminal notch but without a ventral lobe (Ref. 13575).Species: Young and adults with transverse dark bands and numerous white or bluish spots (Ref. 13575, 43278). Body with lateral dermal ridges (Ref. 43278, 13575).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
A shallow water tropical reef-dwelling species. Biology is poorly known. A nocturnal feeder, resting by day in reef crevices (Compagno 2001). Reaches a maximum size of 95 cm TL; adolescent males to 64 cm TL and adult males 50 to 83 cm TL; smallest free-living individuals 9.8 to 12.5 cm TL (Compagno 2001).

Oviparous. Information on reproduction and growth is only available from captivity (Masuda and Teshima 1994, Miki 1994, Masuda 1998). Females deposit two egg capsules at a time, on average every 6 to 7 days from spring to summer (Masuda 1998), or about every six days from winter to spring (Miki 1994). Hatching period: range 110 to 135 days (Miki 1994); average 128.2 days (Masuda 1998); and, average 126 ± 9.2 days, range 116 to 144 days (Tullis and Peterson 2000). Average length at birth was 16.6 cm TL (Miki 1994, Masuda 1998). The maximum laying season reported by Miki (1994) of 87 days yielded 26 eggs from an individual, 11 of which failed to develop.

In captivity, some variation in growth rates have been reported. Masuda (1998) reported individuals reaching 30 cm TL after one year, while Miki (1994) reported 42.1 cm TL after five months! The species has been reported to live in captivity for 25 years (Michael 1993).

Life history parameters
Age at maturity (years): Unknown.
Size at maturity (total length): Female: unknown; Male: 50 to 64 cm TL.
Longevity: Uncertain, but reported to 25 years in captivity (Michael 1993).
Maximum size (total length): 95 cm TL.
Size at birth: 9.8 cm TL or smaller (Compagno 2001); 16.6 cm TL (average in captivity; Miki 1994, Masuda 1998).
Average reproductive age (years): Unknown.
Gestation time: Hatching period (in captivity): range 110 to 135 days (Miki 1994); average 128.2 days (Masuda 1998); and, average 126 ± 9.2 days, range 116 to 144 days (Tullis and Peterson 2000).
Reproductive periodicity: Unknown.
Average annual fecundity or litter size: In captivity: maximum of 26 eggs per laying season (Miki 1994).
Annual rate of population increase: Unknown.
Natural mortality: Unknown.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine
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Depth range based on 2 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 40 - 82.3
  Temperature range (°C): 25.857 - 25.857
  Nitrate (umol/L): 3.610 - 3.610
  Salinity (PPS): 34.451 - 34.451
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.008 - 4.008
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.392 - 0.392
  Silicate (umol/l): 4.097 - 4.097

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 40 - 82.3
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Trophic Strategy

A common but little-known inshore bottom shark (Ref. 247). Feeds on bony fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 43278).
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Hatches at 10-13 cm TL. In Taiwan, hatching occurs in June to August (Ref.58048).
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Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 25 years (wild)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Chiloscyllium plagiosum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 9 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

AATCGTTGACTATTTTCTACAAACCACAAAGATATTGGCACCCTCTATTTAATCTTTGGTGCATGAGCAGGAATGGTAGGTCTAGCTCTT---AGCCTTTTAATCCGTGCTGAGCTAAGTCAACCCGGATCCCTTTTAGGTGAC---GATCAGATTTATAATGTAATCGTAACAGCCCATGCTTTTGTAATAATCTTCTTTATGGTTATGCCTGTAATAATTGGTGGATTTGGGAACTGACTAGTGCCCCTGATA---ATTGGCGCACCTGATATAGCTTTCCCTCGAATAAATAATATAAGCTTTTGACTACTTCCTCCTTCATTCTTATTACTCCTAGCCTCTGCAGGAGTTGAAGCCGGAGCAGGAACAGGTTGAACTGTTTACCCACCTTTAGCAGGTAATTTAGCCCATGCAGGAGCATCAGTTGATTTA---ACTATTTTCTCCCTACACTTAGCAGGAGTTTCATCAATTTTAGCCTCTATTAATTTTATTACAACTATCATTAACATAAAACCACCAGCAATTTCTCAATACCAAACGCCCCTATTTGTGTGATCTATCCTCGTAACCACCATCCTCCTACTACTTTCATTACCAGTCCTAGCAGCA---GGTATTACAATGTTACTTACAGACCGAAACTTAAATACAACATTCTTTGACCCAGCAGGAGGAGGTGATCCTATTTTATATCAACACCTATTCTGATTCTTCGGACACCCAGAAGTATATATCTTAATCCTTCCAGGATTTGGTATAATTTCACACGTAGTCGCTTATTATTCAGGTAAAAAA---GAACCTTTTGGTTATATAGGAATAGTCTGAGCAATAATAGCAATCGGCCTATTAGGTTTTATTGTTTGAGCCCATCACATATTTACAGTAGGAATAGATGTTGATACACGAGCTTACTTCACATCTGCAACAATAATTATCGCAATTCCTACAGGTGTTAAAGTATTTAGCTGATTA---GCAACACTTCATGGAG
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Chiloscyllium plagiosum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 17
Specimens with Barcodes: 24
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2006

Assessor/s
Kyne, P.M. & Burgess, G.H.

Reviewer/s
Cavanagh, R.D. & White, W.T. (Shark Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
A reef-dwelling, shallow water bamboo shark with a relatively wide distribution in the Indo-West Pacific from India east to Indonesia and north to southern Japan. Reaches 95 cm total length, but little is known of its biology, although some information is available from captive animals. The majority of its distribution is under substantial and generally unregulated fishing pressure, and this bamboo shark is landed and utilised for human consumption in nearly all countries within its range. It is also prized for the aquarium trade as it survives well for long periods in captivity. Furthermore, pressure on coral reef systems is high over much of its range, with the amount of available habitat for this and similar species being reduced due to extensive degradation/destruction of coral reefs through practices such as dynamite fishing and pollution from terrestrial runoff. Given human population increases, habitat degradation and continued, increasing exploitation of marine resources in the region, the conservation status of this coral reef species is of concern, warranting a Near Threatened assessment. Lack of detailed catch and aquarium trade data precludes a higher threat listing at this time, but the species should be carefully monitored throughout its range, particularly as the threats described are likely to continue to increase.
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Population

Population
No knowledge of population size or structure.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
The majority of the distribution of the Whitespotted Bamboo Shark is under substantial, generally unregulated and unmanaged fishing pressure. The species is landed and utilised for human consumption in nearly all countries within its range. The species is known to be taken regularly in India, Thailand and China (Compagno 2001) and is landed in Borneo (Manjaji 2002), Philippines (Compagno et al. 2005), Taiwan (both on the mainland and the Penghu Islands) (P. Kyne pers. obs., D. Ebert pers. comm.) and irregularly in Indonesia (W. White pers. comm.). It is also prized for the aquarium trade as it is hardy in captivity and known to survive for long periods in aquaria (Michael 1993, Compagno 2001).

Pressure on coral reef systems is high over much of the species? range with the amount of available habitat being reduced in recent history due to the degradation/destruction of coral reefs through such practices as dynamite fishing (e.g., Indonesia and elsewhere) and terrestrial runoff (e.g., through logging in Philippines).

Given human population increases in the Asian region and continued and increasing exploitation of marine resources the conservation status of this coral reef species is of concern.
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Near Threatened (NT)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Harvest and trade management is required where this species is taken and marketed. The extent to which the species is exploited from the wild for the marine aquarium trade needs to be investigated and the industry should be encouraged to be self-regulated, ensuring stock is drawn from sustainable sources. Chiloscyllium species breed well in captivity and captive reared individuals rather than wild animals should be used to supply the expanding market.

Any measures to protect, maintain and restore coral reef habitats in Asia will benefit this and other species of reef-dwelling elasmobranchs.

The development and implementation of management plans (national and/or regional e.g., under the FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks: IPOA-Sharks) are required to facilitate the conservation and sustainable management of all chondrichthyan species in the region. At the time of writing, development of a regional Plan of Action (under the IPOA-Sharks) was underway by Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. In addition, Malaysia has a separate draft National Plan of Action (NPOA) available, and the Philippines and Indonesia are also taking steps towards developing their separate NPOAs. India stated its intention to prepare a NPOA in the near future; China stated it was working towards development and implementation; and Taiwan and Sri Lanka had not yet stated any intention to develop NPOAs. In developing these management plans, it is vital for countries not to overlook the main aims of the IPOA-Sharks: to improve species-specific catch and landings data collection, and the monitoring and management of shark fisheries. This will not be achieved if the plans do not include adequate data collection, monitoring and management measures. Improved management of shark fisheries will not occur if even the most detailed of the management plans are simply not implemented once prepared (Anon. 2004).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
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Wikipedia

Whitespotted bamboo shark

The whitespotted bamboo shark, Chiloscyllium plagiosum, is a carpet shark with an adult size that approaches one metre in length [1] This small, mostly nocturnal species is harmless to humans. The whitespotted bamboo shark is occasionally kept as a pet in larger home aquariums. It can grow up to 93 centimetres (37 in) long.[2]

Features[edit]

Dorsal fins with convex posterior margins. Color pattern of white and dark spots, with dark bands and a brown body. The coloration is unique in this family making it very simple for identification.[3] The teeth of bamboo sharks are not strongly differentiated. Each tooth has a medial cusp and weak labial root lobes with 26–35 teeth on the upper jaw and 21–32 teeth on the lower jaw.[4]

Distribution[edit]

These sharks are found on coral reefs of the Pacific Ocean. They are common in the coastal areas of Indonesia and surrounding waters, but the species' range extends from Japan to India [5] These sharks are also used for human consumption in Madagascar [3] and Taiwan.[6]

Feeding[edit]

These sharks feed at night, preying on small fish and invertebrates. They have small teeth that can be used for grasping or crushing prey. Soft prey is grasped when the tips of the teeth sink into the flesh, but the teeth pivot backwards when biting hard prey. This protects the tooth tip and allows the flattened front surface of the teeth to form a continuous plate for crushing crabs. [7][8]

Reproduction[edit]

Whitespotted bamboo sharks are oviparous (egg laying). The eggs are approximately five inches long[9] and hatch after 14 or 15 weeks.[9][10] The young hatch out at approximately 6 inches in length.[11] Doug Sweet, curator of fishes at the Belle Isle Aquarium in Detroit reports that in July 2002 a clutch of eggs from a female whitespotted bamboo shark hatched without any apparent fertilization[10] This appears to be the first reported example of parthenogenesis in this species.

Virgin Birth[edit]

A female Chiloscyllium plagiosum that had no contact with a male for 6 years, gave birth to 3 young at the Belle Isle Aquarium in Detroit, Michigan. There are many theories for this incident but none are confirmed. Among these theories, the three most likely would be that the female contains both the male and the female reproductive organs; the female has the ability to store sperm for that long; and lastly that the female has somehow stimulated the eggs without sperm, process called parthenogenesis.[12]

Albino mutations[edit]

Three albino whitespotted bamboo sharks have hatched at SeaWorld of Orlando[13] Downtown Aquarium in Denver Colorado has had annual hatchings of albino whitespotted bamboo sharks since 2007 and they currently have some displayed on exhibit.

As pets[edit]

Because of their small size and bottom-dwelling lifestyle, these are one of the more common species of sharks to be kept in home aquariums. They feed and breed readily in captivity.[7] Because of this, they can be purchased from many sources.[14][15] Adult specimens will require tanks of at least 180 gallons, and preferably more.[16] Captive specimens may be fed chunks of squid, shrimp, clams, scallops and marine fish, as well as live ghost shrimp.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "White spotted bamboo shark". 
  2. ^ Kindersley, Dorling (2001,2005). Animal. New York City: DK Publishing. ISBN 0-7894-7764-5. 
  3. ^ a b Compagno, Leonard. "Sharks of the world." Shark Research Center Iziko-Museums of Cape Town. NO. 1. Vol 2. Cape Town South Africa: FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS, 2002. Pg 173
  4. ^ Bester, Cathleen. "WHITESPOTTED BAMBOOSHARK." Florida Museum of Natural History. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 April 2010.
  5. ^ "White spotted bamboo shark". 
  6. ^ Chen, Wei-Ke and Liu Kwan-Ming "Reproductive biology of whitespotted bamboo shark Chiloscyllium plagiosum in northern waters off Taiwan" Fisheries Science 72: 1215-1224
  7. ^ a b "Shark species". 
  8. ^ "Shark species". 
  9. ^ a b "Shark species". 
  10. ^ a b "Shark gives virgin birth". 
  11. ^ a b "Pet sharks". 
  12. ^ National Geographic, (2002). Shark gives virgin birth in Detroit. Retrieved Apr. 17, 2010, from Nationalgeographic.com Web site: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/09/0925_020925_virginshark.html.
  13. ^ "Albino white spotted bamboo shark". 
  14. ^ "Sharks for sale". 
  15. ^ "Sharks for sale". 
  16. ^ "FAQs". 
General references
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