Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: shark (English), dormilón (Espanol), tiburón (Espanol)
 
Heterodontus quoyi (Fréminville, 1840)


Galapagos bullhead shark

A slender-bodied shark with a large squarish pig-lke snout; low bony ridge above each eye ends gradually at rear; nostrils without barbels, with grooves around nostrils and connected to the mouth; anterior nasal flaps elongate posteriorly; small mouth; front teeth with 3 similar sized points, enlarged molariform teeth posteriorly; both dorsal fins with a sharp spine; origin of first dorsal fin behind pectoral fin base, over inner fin margin.

Grey or light brown with large (> ½ eye diameter) blackish leopard- like spotting; no pale bar between eyes; dark spots or blotches under eye; a series of diffuse dark grey bars may be present across back and sides.

Size: reaches 107 cm.

Habitat: often seen resting on sand adjacent to rocky reefs.

Depth: 3-40 m.

Galapagos Islands and Ecuador to Peru.   
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Biology

Inhabits sand flat and rocky, boulder strewn reef areas, with sand between outcroppings in inshore continental and insular waters. Rests motionless on the bottom. Is docile, non-aggressive and a poor swimmer (Ref. 5227). Nocturnal (Ref. 43278). Feeds on shellfish, crabs, and small invertebrates (Ref. 28023). Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Size at birth (for a newly hatched male) is 17 cm.
  • Compagno, L.J.V. 1984 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 247)
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Distribution

Range Description

The Galapagos bullhead shark is not common around the Galapagos Archipelago. In the west it is located at the east and the north side of Fernandina Island and the west side of Isabela Island. This area is known as the Canal Bolivar. In the south part of Galapagos it is located only in Floreana Island and only at the west side of the island (upwelling area). This shark is associated with cold waters and where upwelling is strong (Rivera, unpubl. data).
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, TEP non-endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic, Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily, Peruvian province, primarily, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Eastern Pacific: Peru (including offshore islands) and the Galapagos Islands. There might be another Heterodontus species from Peru which is Heterodontus peruanus, but these two cannot be separated as of this time for lack of materials examined.
  • Compagno, L.J.V. 1984 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 247)
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Eastern Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 3 (S) - 40 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 107.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 1070 mm SL
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Max. size

107 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 5227))
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Type Information

Type for Heterodontus quoyi
Catalog Number: USNM 77691
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Collector(s): R. Coker
Locality: Lobos De Tierra, Lobos de Tierra Island, Peru, Pacific
  • Type: Evermann, B. W. & Radcliffe, L. 1917. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. No. 95: 2, fig 1.; pl. 1.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
A small poorly known tropical and warm-temperate hornshark, demersal on the inshore continental and insular shelves. In the Galapagos it is associated with colder waters and where upwelling is strong. It occupies rocky and coral reefs, often seen at 3 to 30 m (Compagno 2001, Allen and Robertson 1994). It is primarily nocturnal feeding on crabs. Oviparous. Maximum size 105 cm total length (TL); adult male 48 cm TL; newly hatched male 17 cm TL (Compagno 2001, Rivera unpublished data).

Systems
  • Marine
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A little-known but apparently common tropical and warm-temperate bullhead shark of inshore continental and insular waters, at moderate depths on the bottom. Lives on rocky and coral reefs, often seen resting on ledges of vertical rock surfaces at 16 to 30 m depth.
  • Compagno, L.J.V. (2001). Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 269p.
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 3 - 40 m (Ref. 5227), usually 16 - 30 m (Ref. 54549)
  • FAO-FIGIS 2005 A world overview of species of interest to fisheries. Chapter: Heterodontus quoyi. Retrieved on 10 June 2005, from www.fao.org/figis/servlet/species?fid=12660. 3p. FIGIS Species Fact Sheets. Species Identification and Data Programme-SIDP, FAO-FIGIS (Ref. 54549)
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Depth: 3 - 40m.
From 3 to 40 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Rocks, Reef and soft bottom, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom), Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Sand & gravel

FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits sand flat and rocky, boulder strewn reef areas, with sand between outcroppings in inshore continental and insular waters. Feeds on shellfish, crabs, and small invertebrates.
  • Compagno, L.J.V. 1984 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 247)
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves, sea-stars/cucumbers/urchins, bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
  • Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen 1966 Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 941 p. (Ref. 205)
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Reproduction

Egg Type: Benthic, No pelagic larva, No pelagic phase
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
Kyne, P.M., Rivera, F. & Leandro, L.

Reviewer/s
Cavanagh, R.D. & Fowler, S.L. (Shark Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
A poorly known, primarily nocturnal, tropical and warm-temperate hornshark endemic to the coast and offshore islands of Peru and the Galapagos Islands in the Southeast Pacific. Reaches a maximum size of 105 cm total length (TL). Oviparous, but little else known of its biology. Protected in the Galapagos Marine Reserve where it is not common and has an apparent limited distribution in suitable habitat (Rivera, unpublished data). While not presently fished in the Galapagos the apparent limited population size places this possible subpopulation of the species in a vulnerable position if it began to be captured here. This species is not of interest in commercial fisheries, but is presumably taken as bycatch by inshore fisheries elsewhere in its known range; however, little information is available. Research is required (taxonomy, ecology, bycatch, habitat) to accurately assess its conservation status.
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IUCN Red List: Listed, Data deficient

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
The Galapagos Islands subpopulation is distinct from the Peruvian subpopulation(s), however, little information is available on population structure.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Not fished in the Galapagos Islands but the apparent limited population size, and possible subpopulation, places the species in a vulnerable position if it began to be captured here. Apparently not a commercial species, though probably taken as bycatch elsewhere in its range and discarded (Compagno 2001). Presumably impacted by inshore fisheries, but no information available.

Commonly observed by divers (Compagno 2001) and may have ecotourism value.
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Data deficient (DD)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Protected in the Galapagos Marine Reserve where there are ?protected zones? in which fishing is not permitted.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest
  • Coppola, S.R., W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, N. Scialabba and K.E. Carpenter 1994 SPECIESDAB: Global species database for fishery purposes. User's manual. FAO Computerized Information Series (Fisheries). No. 9. Rome, FAO. 103 p. (Ref. 171)
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Wikipedia

Galapagos bullhead shark

The Galapagos bullhead shark, Heterodontus quoyi, is a bullhead shark of the family Heterodontidae. It is found in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean between latitudes to 10° S, at depths between 3 and 40 m. It can reach a length of 1.07 m.

The reproduction of this bullhead shark is oviparous.

References[edit]

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