Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Adults are found on sand bottom (Ref. 2850), usually in deep water (Ref. 9988). Feed on invertebrates and bottom fishes (Ref. 6885). Livers of large individuals are a rich source of vitamin A (Ref. 6885). Marketed fresh or as frozen fillets (Ref. 2850). Eaten steamed, fried, micro-waved and baked (Ref. 9988). Generally regarded as the premium Pacific coast sole (Ref. 9988).
  • Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann 1983 A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850)
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is found from the Aleutian Islands and the Bering Sea coast of Alaska to Islas Los Coronados, northern Baja California, Mexico.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Eastern Pacific: Bering Sea coast of Alaska to Islas Los Coronados, northern Baja California, Mexico.
  • Lamb, A. and P. Edgell 1986 Coastal fishes of the Pacific northwest. Harbour Publishing Co. Ltd., B.C., Canada. 224 p. (Ref. 27436)
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Eastern North Pacific.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 87 - 101; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 67 - 79; Vertebrae: 41 - 44
  • Hart, J.L. 1973 Pacific fishes of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. 180:740 p. (Ref. 6885)
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Size

Max. size

53.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 56527)); 70 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 3,700 g (Ref. 56527); max. reported age: 35 years (Ref. 55701)
  • Fadeev, N.S. 2005 Guide to biology and fisheries of fishes of the North Pacific Ocean. Vladivostok, TINRO-Center. 366 p. (Ref. 56527)
  • Munk, K.M. 2001 Maximum ages of groundfishes in waters off Alaska and British Columbia and consideration of age determination. Alaska Fish. Res. Bull. 8(1):12-21. (Ref. 55701)
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Maximum size: 700 mm TL
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Diagnostic Description

Dorsal origin over middle part of eye. Caudal longest in middle, ending in a broad 'V'. Pectoral fins large, bluntly pointed.
  • Hart, J.L. 1973 Pacific fishes of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. 180:740 p. (Ref. 6885)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Adults inhabits sandy and muddy substrates at depths of 80 to 550 m on the continental shelf and slope. As juveniles, the diet consists of small invertebrates, while the adults feed on fishes including herring and small pollock, shrimp and crabs. Spawning occurs during November to March, depending on the particular spawning ground. Females spawn once a year and fecundity is related to fish size. This species has a pelagic larval stage (J.G. Nielsen pers. comm. 2009).

Systems
  • Marine
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Habitat Type: Marine

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Environment

demersal; marine; depth range 0 - 550 m (Ref. 6793)
  • Allen, M.J. and G.B. Smith 1988 Atlas and zoogeography of common fishes in the Bering Sea and northeastern Pacific. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS 66, 151 p. (Ref. 6793)
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Depth range based on 1216 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 726 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.91 - 421.5
  Temperature range (°C): 5.424 - 9.443
  Nitrate (umol/L): 9.687 - 37.822
  Salinity (PPS): 32.340 - 34.190
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.139 - 5.667
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.098 - 2.880
  Silicate (umol/l): 13.552 - 70.929

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.91 - 421.5

Temperature range (°C): 5.424 - 9.443

Nitrate (umol/L): 9.687 - 37.822

Salinity (PPS): 32.340 - 34.190

Oxygen (ml/l): 1.139 - 5.667

Phosphate (umol/l): 1.098 - 2.880

Silicate (umol/l): 13.552 - 70.929
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 0 - 550m.
Recorded at 550 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Feeds on benthic invertebrates and demersal fish (Ref. 6885).
  • Hart, J.L. 1973 Pacific fishes of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. 180:740 p. (Ref. 6885)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Eopsetta jordani

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 19 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

TTGGCACCCTCTATCTCGTATTTGGTGCCTGAGCCGGAATAGTGGGGACAGGCCTAAGTCTGCTTATTCGAGCAGAACTAAGCCAACCCGGGGCTCTCCTAGGGGACGACCAAATTTATAACGTGATCGTCACCGCACACGCCTTTGTAATAATCTTTTTTATAGTAATACCCATTATGATCGGAGGGTTCGGAAACTGGCTTATCCCACTAATGATCGGAGCCCCAGACATGGCATTCCCTCGAATAAATAATATGAGTTTCTGACTTCTACCCCCCTCCTTCCTTCTTCTCTTAGCCTCTTCAGGTGTCGAAGCCGGGGCGGGAACGGGCTGAACCGTCTACCCCCCACTGGCTGGCAATCTAGCCCACGCCGGAGCATCCGTAGACCTCACAATTTTCTCCCTCCACCTTGCAGGTATTTCATCAATCCTCGGGGCAATTAACTTCATTACCACTATCATCAACATGAAACCCATAGCAGTTACTATGTACCAAATTCCATTATTTGTTTGAGCCGTTCTAATCACGGCCGTCCTTCTTCTTCTCTCCCTCCCCGTCTTAGCCGCAGGAATTACCATGCTGCTAACAGACCGCAACCTAAACACGACTTTCTTTGACCCCTCCGGTGGAGGAGACCCCATCCTGTATCAGCACCTATTCTGATTCTTCGG
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Eopsetta jordani

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 17
Specimens with Barcodes: 22
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Munroe, T.A. & Nielsen, J.G.

Reviewer/s
Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M.

Contributor/s
De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P., Smith, J. & Livingston, F.

Justification
Eopsetta jordani has been assessed as Least Concern. Despite harvesting by the commercial fishing industry and natural fluctuations in population numbers, there is no evidence to suggest that this species qualifies for a threat category. At present the stocks are in recovery from some record low levels of abundance. Continued monitoring of the population numbers and harvest levels of this species is needed to ensure that current measures to aid stock recovery are sufficient to rebuild the population of this species.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Population

Population
Ten separate breeding stocks have been identified for this species, however mixing of the stocks can occur outside of the spawning season. The stocks in British Columbia were considered to be at low levels by the late 20th century (Fargo and Kronlund 1997). Consequently, annual landings were capped at 479 tonnes (t) in 1997, limiting trawl fishers to incidental harvests only. The proportion of small sized individuals entering the fishery had increased over the period of 1998-2002 (Starr and Fargo 2004). Starr and Fargo (2004) found that the population has been increasing in abundance in recent years and current stock status seems to be at or above the level of maximum yield. Recently an increase of by-catch rates of this species have been recorded by fishermen.

In the USA, this species is not considered to be overfished (Lai et al. 2005). Stocks in the areas between Vancouver and Columbia (Northern region) and areas south of Columbia (Southern region), reached historical lows in 1992 and 1986 respectively (Lai et al. 2005). However, regional populations of this species can experience periods of low levels of abundance due to adverse environmental conditions. Furthermore, stocks in both regions have increased rapidly in recent years (Lai et al. 2005). In 2005, the estimated spawning biomass of this species was 4960 t for the Northern region and 4667 t for the Southern region.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is an important commercial food fish, and has been fished throughout its range since the 19th century by bottom trawlers. A substantial portion of the annual harvest is taken from spawning grounds during winter months (November to February). Catches for the USA ranged from approximately 1,400-2,600 t over the period 1981-2004. In Canada, annual landings were capped at 479 t in 1997, limiting trawl fishers to incidental harvests only.

Stocks off both the USA and Canada are said to have increased in recent years (Starr and Fargo 2004; Lai et al. 2005). Recently an increase of by-catch rates of this species have been recorded by fishermen off British Columbia (Starr and Fargo 2004).
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Harvesting for this species is carried out under stock management regulations. These regulations are applicable throughout much of this species range. In British Columbia, trawls have been limited to incidental catches only, due to low stock levels.

Monitoring of the population trends of this species is needed.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
  • Frimodt, C. 1995 Multilingual illustrated guide to the world's commercial coldwater fish. Fishing News Books, Osney Mead, Oxford, England. 215 p. (Ref. 9988)
  • Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans 1995 British Columbia tidal waters sport fishing guide 1995-1996. Canadian Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans. (Ref. 11007)
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Wikipedia

Petrale sole

The Petrale sole, Eopsetta jordani, is an edible flatfish of the family Pleuronectidae. It is a demersal fish that lives on sandy bottoms, usually in deep water, down to depths of about 550 metres (1,800 ft). Males can grow to 53 centimetres (21 in) in length, females to 70 centimetres (28 in), and they can weigh up to 3.7 kilograms (8.2 lb). Its native habitat is the Eastern Pacific, stretching from the coast of Baja California in the south to the Aleutian Islands in the Bering Sea in the north.[2][3]

Petrale sole is an important commercial fish, caught all along the West Coast of the United States and Canada and into the Bering Sea, almost exclusively by trawler.[3][4][5]

Identification[edit]

Petrale sole is a right-eyed flounder with an oval body. Its upper surface is uniformly light to dark brown, and its lower surface is white, sometimes with pink traces. It has a large mouth with two rows of small, arrow-shaped teeth on the upper jaw and one row of teeth on the lower jaw.[5]

Diet[edit]

Juvenile petrale sole feed on cumaceans, carideans and amphipods, whilst adults will eat shrimps, crabs, epibenthos organisms and other fish, such as herring, hake, anchovy, pollock and other flatfish.[3]

Commercial Fishing[edit]

The Petrale sole is an important commercial fish, and has been fished off Oregon since at least 1884. One fishery exists, off the west coast of the United States; although petral sole are native to Alaska and are caught there and in other fisheries, no other designated petrale sole fishery exists.[3][5]

Between 1995 and 2004 the coastwide catch of petrale sole ranged from 1,616 to 2,377 tonnes. The Pacific Fishery Management Council has established Acceptable Biological Catch limits for the annual harvests of petrale sole in the waters off the US west coast; from 1995 to 2000 the coastwide total annual catch did not exceed the catch limit, but from 2001 the catch in the Northern assessment area has exceeded the portion of the catch limit attributed to that area.[3][4]

The estimated biomass of petrale sole in the northern segment of the fishery reached a historical low of 1,267 tonnes in 1992, but has increased steadily since then to 4,960 tonnes in 2005. The southern segment reached a historical low of 1,012 tonnes in 1986, and, after remaining stable for ten years, by 2005 it had increased to 4,667 tonnes. Petrale sole is currently not designated as overfished.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Eopsetta jordani". IUCN Red List. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2011-07-29. 
  2. ^ Ed. Ranier Froese and Daniel Pauly (15 January 2009). "Petrale sole". Fishbase. Retrieved 2009-05-15. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Lai, Haltuch, Punt, Cope (September 2005). "Stock Assessment of Petrale Sole: 2004". US National Marine Fisheries Service. Retrieved 2009-05-15. [dead link]
  4. ^ a b "Washington - Oregon - California Petrale Sole - northern Stock". FishSource. Sustainable Fisheries Partnership. 2007. Retrieved 2009-05-15. [dead link]
  5. ^ a b c "Petrale Sole (Eopsetta jordani)". FishWatch. National Marine Fisheries Service. 14 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-15. 
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