Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits rubble and gravel riffles of rivers and rocky lake shores. Individuals up to 5 cm feed on planktonic crustaceans and aquatic insect larvae especially that of midges and mayflies (Ref. 1998). Larger sculpins feed on minnows and other fishes (Ref. 1998). Possibly spawns in June (Ref. 1998).
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Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes Pacific Slope drainages from upper Fraser River drainage, British Columbia, to Nehalem River, Oregon, including the Columbia River drainage in British Columbia, Washington, Idaho, Montana, and Oregon (Page and Burr 2011). Reported also from Fish Lake, Harney County, Oregon, where the species evidently was introduced with stocked trout (Lee et al. 1980).

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Range Description

Range includes Pacific Slope drainages from upper Fraser River drainage, British Columbia, to Nehalem River, Oregon, including the Columbia River drainage in British Columbia, Washington, Idaho, Montana, and Oregon (Page and Burr 2011). Reported also from Fish Lake, Harney County, Oregon, where the species evidently was introduced with stocked trout (Lee et al. 1980).
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North America: upper Fraser River drainage in British Columbia in Canada to Nehalem River in Oregon, USA (including Columbia River drainage of British Columbia in Canada, and Washington, Idaho, Montana and Oregon in the USA).
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Southwestern Canada and northwestern U.S.A.
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Physical Description

Size

Length: 8 cm

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Maximum size: 155 mm TL
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Max. size

15.5 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 1998))
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Type Information

Type for Uranidea rhothea
Catalog Number: USNM 30737
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): R. Smith
Locality: Spokane R., Wash. Ty., Washington, United States, North America
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Columbia River Demersal Habitat

This taxon is one of a number of demersal species in the Columbia River system. Demersal river fish are found at the river bottom, feeding on benthos and zooplankton. The Columbia River is the largest North American watercourse by volume that discharges to the Pacific Ocean. With headwaters at Columbia Lake, in Canadian British Columbia, the course of the river has a length of approximately 2000 kilometers and a drainage basin that includes most of the land area of Washington, Oregon and Idaho as well as parts of four other U.S. states and two Canadian provinces.

The Columbia River Basin of northwestern North America is an important habitat for Acipenser transmontanus. The Columbia River is the largest North American watercourse by volume that discharges to the Pacific Ocean. With headwaters at Columbia Lake, in Canadian British Columbia, the course of the river has a length of approximately 2000 kilometers and a drainage basin that includes most of the land area of Washington, Oregon and Idaho as well as parts of four other U.S. states and two Canadian provinces.

The hydrology and aquatic habitat of the Columbia River basin has been adversely altered by numerous large dams. There are over 250 reservoirs and around 150 hydroelectric projects in the basin, including 18 mainstem dams on the Columbia and its main tributary, the Snake River.

Water quality in the Columbia River has deteriorated over the last century, due to agricultural runoff and logging practices, as well as water diversions that tend to concentrate pollutants in the reduced water volume. For example nitrate levels in the Columbia generally tripled in the period from the mid 1960s to the mid 1980s, increasing from a typical level of one to three milligrams per liter. Considerable loading of herbicides and pesticides also has occurred over the last 70 years, chiefly due to agricultural land conversion and emphasis upon maximizing crop yields.

Heavy metal concentrations in sediment and in fish tissue had become an issue in the latter half of the twentieth century; however, considerable progress has been made beginning in the 1980s with implementation of provisions of the U.S.Clean Water Act, involving attention to smelter and paper mill discharges along the Columbia.

Some large demersal fish species occurring in the Columbia Basin are the 610 centimeter (cm) white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), the 76 cm Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata); the 55 cm Brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebolosus); the 61 cm largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus); the 64 cm longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus catostomus); and the 65 cm Utah sucker (Catostomus ardens).

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Habitat Type: Freshwater

Comments: Habitat includes swift waters (generally with velocities of 1.4-4.0 feet per second) of small to large rivers with stable gravel or rubble bottoms (Wydoski and Whitney 1979, Page and Burr 2011); also rocky lake shores. Eggs are deposited under stones, in swift water.

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Habitat includes swift waters (generally with velocities of 1.4-4.0 feet per second) of small to large rivers with stable gravel or rubble bottoms (Wydoski and Whitney 1979, Page and Burr 2011); also rocky lake shores. Eggs are deposited under stones, in swift water.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

demersal; freshwater
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Depth range based on 2 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 2

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 2
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

May migrate upstream to spawn.

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Young eat planktonic crustaceans and aquatic insect larvae. As they grow in size they feed mainly on insects. Fishes become increasingly important in the diet of sculpins over 55 mm (Scott and Crossman 1973).

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Inhabits rubble and gravel riffles of rivers and rocky lake shores. Individuals up to 5 cm feed on planktonic crustaceans and aquatic insect larvae especially that of midges and mayflies (Ref. 1998). Larger sculpins feed on minnows and other fishes (Ref. 1998).
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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300

Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

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Global Abundance

10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals

Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000. This sculpin is common in many areas.

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Spawns late spring. In British Columbia, spawns April-June. Egg production varies geographically and individually; in Newaukum Creek, Washington, females produced 165 eggs at age 2, 2,258 at age 3 (Wydoski and Whitney 1979). Sexually mature in 2 years, may live 6 years.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cottus rhotheus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 7 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CCTATATCTAGTATTTGGTGCTTGAGCCGGAATAGTAGGCACAGCTTTAAGCCTCCTAATTCGAGCAGAACTAAGCCAACCCGGCGCCCTCTTGGGGGACGACCAGATTTATAATGTAATTGTTACAGCCCATGCTTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTATGATCGGAGGTTTCGGGAACTGACTCGTTCCCCTAATGATTGGCGCTCCTGATATGGCCTTTCCTCGAATGAATAATATGAGCTTTTGACTTCTTCCCCCATCTTTTTTACTCCTCCTTGCCTCTTCGGGAGTCGAAGCAGGGGCCGGAACCGGATGAACAGTCTACCCGCCCCTCGCCGGAAATCTCGCCCACGCAGGAGCCTCTGTTGACCTAACAATCTTTTCCCTTCACCTAGCAGGTATCTCCTCTATTCTTGGAGCAATCAACTTTATCACAACTATTATTAACATGAAGCCCCCTGCTATCTCACAATACCAGACCCCGCTCTTTGTATGATCTGTTCTTATTACTGCCGTCCTACTGCTCCTTTCCCTCCCCGTTCTTGCCGCCGGCATCACAATACTCCTGACAGACCGAAACCTTAACACCACCTTCTTTGACCCTGCCGGGGGAGGGGACCCAATCCTTTACCAACATCTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cottus rhotheus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
NatureServe

Reviewer/s
Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of the large extent of occurrence, large number of subpopulations and locations, and large population size, and because the species probably is not declining fast enough to qualify for any of the threatened categories.
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Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable (=10% change)

Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.

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Population

Population
This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000. This sculpin is common in many areas.

Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Comments: No major threats are known.

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Major Threats
No major threats are known.
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Not Evaluated
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Currently, this species is of relatively low conservation concern and does not require significant additional protection or major management, monitoring, or research action.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Extensive geographic variability (Lee et al. 1980). Formerly included in the order Perciformes; the 1991 AFS checklist (Robins et al. 1991) followed Nelson (1984) in recognizing the order Scorpaeniformes as distinct from the Perciformes.

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