Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: major (English), gregory (English), jaqueta (Espanol), castañeta (Espanol)
 
Stegastes baldwini Allen & Woods, 1980


Clipperton gregory,      Baldwin's major



Body oval, compressed; 1 pair of nostrils; margin of preopercle serrated; margin of bone under eye serrated, without notch it and the bone before it; mouth small, protrusible; teeth in single row, long and close-set;  lower gill rakers 12-13; a single continuous dorsal fin, XII, 15 (rarely 16); anal rays II, 13; pectoral rays 21 (rarely 22); adult  males without microscopic papilla on outer half of pectoral fin; no projecting short spines at upper and lower base of tail fin; caudal fin bluntly forked; scales are moderately large and rough; body scaled, head largely scaled (snout scaled to nostrils), as are the basal parts of the median fins; lateral-line scales 20 (rarely 21); lateral line incomplete, ends under end of dorsal fin base.


Dark brown with darker scale outlines; paling to yellow front of head; yellow lips and blue iris; a broad white band on caudal peduncle. Juvenile  black; tail with white base and clear fin. 

Maximum length to 13 cm.

Habitat: coral reefs.

Abundant in shallow (0-30 m) water. But extends down to 100 m.

Known only from Clipperton Island.
   
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Biology

Adults inhabit coral and rocky reefs (Ref. 9334). Omnivorous (Ref. 9334). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is only found in the Clipperton Atoll in assocation with its four km² area of reefs, and therefore has an estimated area of occupancy of less than 10 km².
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, TEP oceanic island (s) endemic, Clipperton Island endemic, Island (s), Island (s) only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
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Eastern Central Pacific: known only from Clipperton Island.
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Eastern Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 0 (S) - 100 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15 - 16; Analspines: 2; Analsoft rays: 13
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Size

Length max (cm): 13.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 90 mm SL
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Max. size

9.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 7247))
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Type Information

Holotype for Stegastes baldwini Allen & Woods
Catalog Number: USNM 114944
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Radiograph
Collector(s): W. Baldwin & et al.
Year Collected: 1956
Locality: Clipperton Is., Two Areas: (1) 400 Yds. W. of Wrecked Lst, (2) 1/2 mi. W. of Wrecked Lst., Clipperton Island, Pacific
Depth (m): 1
  • Holotype: Allen, G. R. & Woods, L. P. 1980. Records of the Western Australian Museum. 8 (2): 183.
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Paratype for Stegastes baldwini Allen & Woods
Catalog Number: USNM 114945
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Radiograph
Collector(s): W. Baldwin & et al.
Year Collected: 1956
Locality: Clipperton Is., Two Areas: (1) 400 Yds. W. of Wrecked Lst, (2) 1/2 mi. W. of Wrecked Lst., Clipperton Island, Pacific
Depth (m): 1
  • Paratype: Allen, G. R. & Woods, L. P. 1980. Records of the Western Australian Museum. 8 (2): 183.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species inhabits coral reefs and associated calcareous rock habitat (Allen 1991) to depths of 100 m. It is omnivorous, feeds on benthic microalgae, sessile crustacea and worms and mobile benthic crustacea.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; non-migratory; marine; depth range 1 - 5 m (Ref. 9334)
  • Schneider, W. and F. Krupp 1995 Pomacentridae. Castañetas, jaquetas y petacas. p. 1392-1404. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9334)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9334&speccode=11853 External link.
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Depth: 1 - 5m.
From 1 to 5 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Inhabits coral and rocky inshore reefs. Omnivorous (Ref. 9334).
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Reef only, Corals, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom)

FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Omnivore

Diet: benthic microalgae, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), sessile crustacea, sessile worms
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).
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Reproduction

Egg Type: Benthic, Pelagic larva
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Allen, G. & Robertson, R.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is restricted to Clipperton Island reefs, and has an area of occupancy of less than 10 km². Regional experts support the plausible threat of the increased duration and frequency of ENSO events that can cause severe and rapid declines for restricted-range, shallow-water species in this region of the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Because it is found in deeper water and therefore is not expected to decline as quickly as more shallow-water species, it is listed as Near Threatened under Criterion D2.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
According to Robertson and Allen (1996), this species was relatively commonly at the Clipperton Atoll.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
In the Eastern Tropical Pacific, severe localized fish species declines have occurred after strong ENSO events that result in shallow waters that are too warm and nutrient poor for extended periods of time (Grove 1985, Edgar et al. 2009). The frequency and duration of ENSO events in this region of the Eastern Tropical Pacific (e.g. the up-welling zone off the coast of Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Panama and the offshore islands) appears to be increasing (Glynn and Ault 2000, Soto 2001, Chen et al. 2004). Given this species’ restricted distribution and shallow water habitat, oceanographic environmental changes, such as those associated with future ENSO events, may have detrimental effects on the survival of this species.

However, this species is found in deeper waters and declines for this species may not be as severe as for other more shallow-water species.
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Near Threatened (NT)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no conservation measures known for this species.
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