Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Adults are found mainly over the continental shelf, often over sand bottoms (Ref. 27121). Shoals rise to feed in surface waters at night and found close to the bottom during the day (Ref. 27121). Juveniles feed mainly on copepods while adults prey on fish and a wide range of invertebrates (Ref. 27121).
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Distribution

Eastern Atlantic: Gulf of Guinea to South Africa. Bianchi et. al. 1993 notes 'Smith-Vaniz (1992, pers. comm.) does not believe that Trachurus capensis is a valid species but admits that an adequate series of this species along the coast of Africa are not available'.
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Eastern Atlantic: Gulf of Guinea to South Africa.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 600 mm FL
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Max. size

60.0 cm FL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 3166))
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

pelagic-neritic; marine; depth range 0 - 500 m (Ref. 54925), usually 100 - 300 m (Ref. 54925)
  • FAO-FIGIS 2005 A world overview of species of interest to fisheries. Chapter: Trachurus capensis. Retrieved on 12 July 2005, from www.fao.org/figis/servlet/species?fid=3105. 2p. FIGIS Species Fact Sheets. Species Identification and Data Programme-SIDP, FAO-FIGIS (Ref. 54925)
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Depth range based on 3197 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1658 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 780
  Temperature range (°C): 5.409 - 22.041
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.823 - 29.014
  Salinity (PPS): 34.380 - 35.415
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.685 - 5.757
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.177 - 2.158
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.529 - 26.708

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 780

Temperature range (°C): 5.409 - 22.041

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.823 - 29.014

Salinity (PPS): 34.380 - 35.415

Oxygen (ml/l): 1.685 - 5.757

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.177 - 2.158

Silicate (umol/l): 2.529 - 26.708
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 0 - 400m.
Recorded at 400 meters.

Habitat: pelagic.
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Trophic Strategy

Feeds on fish and invertebrates (Ref. 27121).
  • Bianchi, G., K.E. Carpenter, J.-P. Roux, F.J. Molloy, D. Boyer and H.J. Boyer 1999 FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of Namibia. FAO, Rome. 250 p. (Ref. 27121)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Trachurus capensis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Trachurus capensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 14
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: highly commercial; price category: low; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1992 FAO yearbook 1990. Fishery statistics. Catches and landings. FAO Fish. Ser. (38). FAO Stat. Ser. 70:(105):647 p. (Ref. 4931)
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Wikipedia

Cape horse mackerel

The Cape horse mackerel (Trachurus capensis) is a mackerel-like species in the family Carangidae.[1] Their maximum reported length is 60 cm, with a common length of 30 cm.[2]

Cape horse mackerel (Trachurus capensis) is a pelagic species, usually found to a depth of 300 m. They are mostly found over the continental shelf, often over sandy bottoms. The shoals rise to feed in surface waters at night, but can be found close to the bottom during the day. Horse mackerel are very abundant in South African and Namibian waters, though much of the catch is exported. Their stock status is uncertain, but expert opinion is that the stock is most likely underfished.

Cape horse mackerel is a bycatch species in the offshore demersal trawl, which operates mainly off the waters of the Western Cape at depths of 110m and deeper. The offshore demersal trawl fishery operates using trawl nets which are dragged behind the boat along the ocean floor at depths from 110 – 800 m. Cape horse mackerel caught in the midwater trawl fishery are considered to be more sustainable than those caught in the offshore trawl fishery (see Cape horse mackerel assessment for midwater trawl). This fishery primarily targets deepwater hake (Merluccius paradoxus) on soft, sandy bottoms, as well as commercially valuable bycatch species such as kingklip (Genypterus capensis) and monkfish (Lophius vomerinus). Although trawling is a highly unselective fishing method, offshore fishing grounds are not generally very biodiverse (i.e. they are only inhabited by a few species) and the discard rate for this fishery is estimated to be 10% of the total catch. However, this fishing method is likely to have significant impacts on bottom habitats and concerns are expressed around the number of seabird mortalities caused during trawling (estimated at 8000 per year). The hake component of the offshore demersal trawl fishery has been certified by the Marine Stewardship Council since 2004, and the current management system for this fishery employs a number of ecosystem-based management measures which address issues such as bycatch, closed areas and benthic habitat impacts. The Cape horse mackerel is managed in terms of a maximum precautionary catch Limit (MPCL). The MPCL has been maintained at 44 000 tonnes in recent years and accommodates both mid-water-directed and bycatch in the hake-directed demersal trawl sector. Juvenile horse mackerel are occasionally targeted on the West Coast where a 5 000 tonnes precautionary catch limit is enforced (the whole small pelagic sector is closed if the limit is exceeded). Despite the absence of direct evidence of ecosystem change, a potential for ecosystem impact exists, as this is an important small pelagic species, and fills a similar ecosystem niche to other small pelagic species such as sardine and anchovy.

Fisheries[edit]

Capture of Cape horse mackerel in tonnes from 1950 to 2009 [3]


References[edit]

  1. ^ "Trachurus capensis (Castelnau, 1861)". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 9 March 2012. 
  2. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Trachurus capensis" in FishBase. March 2012 version.
  3. ^ Trachurus capensis (Castelnau, 1861) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
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