Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found in rocky runs and pools of creeks and small rivers (Ref. 5723). Benthic invertivore. Feeds on dipterans, lepidopterans, trichopterans, ephemeropterans, and coleoterans (Ref. 79012).
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Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: (5000-200,000 square km (about 2000-80,000 square miles)) Range includes the Atlantic Slope of North America, in the basin of Rio Bravo (=Rio Grande), in rios San Carlos (= arroyos de Zorro, Lobo, and Tule) and San Rodrigo (=San Diego), Coahuila, and Devil's River, San Felipe, Pinto, Independence, and Las Moras creeks, and the lower Pecos river, Texas (Miller 2005, Bonner et al. 2008). Not in mainstream Rio Grande. Record from New Mexico (Koster 1957) apparently is erroneous, but the species may have occurred in the upper Pecos before aridity in the area increased (Mayden 1989).

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Range Description

Range includes the Atlantic Slope of North America, in the basin of Rio Bravo (=Rio Grande), in rios San Carlos (= arroyos de Zorro, Lobo, and Tule) and San Rodrigo (=San Diego), Coahuila, and Devil's River, San Felipe, Pinto, Independence, and Las Moras creeks, and the lower Pecos river, Texas (Miller 2005, Bonner et al. 2008). Not in mainstream Rio Grande. Record from New Mexico (Koster 1957) apparently is erroneous, but the species may have occurred in the upper Pecos before aridity in the area increased (Mayden 1989).
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North America: Devils River, lower Pecos River and nearby tributaries of Rio Grande in Texas, USA. Also found in Rio San Carlo (Rio Grande drainage), Coahuila, Mexico.
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Texas, U.S.A. and Mexico.
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Physical Description

Size

Length: 6 cm

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Maximum size: 75 mm TL
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Max. size

7.5 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. ))
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Type Information

Syntype for Cyprinella proserpina
Catalog Number: USNM 125084
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): J. Clark
Year Collected: 1851
Locality: Piedra Painte, N.M., New Mexico, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Girard, C. F. 1857. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 8: 200.
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Syntype for Cyprinella proserpina
Catalog Number: USNM 117
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Dry Osteological Specimen
Collector(s): J. Clark
Locality: Devils River, Rio Grande, Val Verde County, Texas, United States, North America
  • Syntype:
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Syntype for Cyprinella proserpina
Catalog Number: USNM 118
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Dry Osteological Specimen
Collector(s): J. Clark
Year Collected: 1851
Locality: Piedra Painte, N.M., New Mexico, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Girard, C. F. 1857. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 8: 200.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Freshwater

Comments: Habitat includes rocky runs and pools of creeks and small rivers (Page and Burr 2011); in clear streams, this shiner occupies habitats varying from pools to swift channels and riffles (Lee et al. 1980). It prefers clear and cool streams with a sand-gravel substrate (Mayden 1989).Miller (2005) described habitat as pools, swift channels, and riffles of clear, spring-fed streams 5-30 meters wide, at depths to 1.3 meters, with Chara, Potamogeton, algae, and other submergent vegetation.

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Habitat includes rocky runs and pools of creeks and small rivers (Page and Burr 2011); in clear streams, this shiner occupies habitats varying from pools to swift channels and riffles (Lee et al. 1980). It prefers clear and cool streams with a sand-gravel substrate (Mayden 1989). Miller (2005) described habitat as pools, swift channels, and riffles of clear, spring-fed streams 5-30 meters wide, at depths to 1.3 meters, with Chara, Potamogeton, algae, and other submergent vegetation.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

benthopelagic; freshwater
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Depth range based on 2 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.25 - 0.5

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.25 - 0.5
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: May feed near bottom. Benthic sight feeding has been observed (see Mayden 1989).

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20

Comments: This species is represented by probably fewer than 20 historical subpopulations; the number of extant, viable subpopulations might be no more than 10. The Texas Natural History Collections (1997) mapped 13 collection locations including 12 sites from Texas and one site from Mexico. Miller (20050 mapped 6 collection sites in Mexico.

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Global Abundance

10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals

Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000. This is the second most common fish species found in the Devils River, Texas (Lee et al. 1980). It is common in Independence Creek in Texas (see Bonner et al. 20080. Page and Burr (2011) regarded it as fairly common.

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Has spawned after severe flooding.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cyprinella proserpina

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 5 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CCTTTATTTAGTATTTGGTGCCTGAGCCGGGATAGTGGGAACCGCTTTAAGCCTCCTTATCCGCGCTGAGTTAAGTCAACCTGGCTCACTTCTAGGTGATGACCAGATTTATAATGTCATTGTTACCGCTCACGCCTTTGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTCTTATTGGAGGCTTCGGAAATTGACTTGTGCCGCTGATAATCGGGGCACCTGATATAGCATTTCCGCGAATAAACAACATAAGCTTCTGGCTCCTACCCCCCTCATTCCTTTTACTACTAGCTTCTTCTGGCGTTGAAGCTGGGGCCGGAACAGGATGAACTGTATATCCTCCCCTAGCAGGTAATCTTGCCCACGCAGGAGCATCAGTAGACCTCACAATTTTCTCTCTACACCTAGCAGGTGTTTCCTCAATTCTAGGGGCAGTAAATTTTATTACTACAATTATTAATATGAAACCCCCAGCAATCTCTCAATATCAAACACCCCTCTTCGTATGGGCTGTCCTCGTTACTGCTGTTCTTCTACTACTCTCGCTGCCTGTTCTAGCTGCCGGAATCACTATACTTCTTACTGATCGAAACCTGAACACTACGTTCTTCGACCCAGCAGGAGGAGGTGACCCTATNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cyprinella proserpina

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N2 - Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G3 - Vulnerable

Reasons: Small range in Texas and Mexico; detrimentally impacted by dams, altered stream flows, and water turbidity, but flexible, can cope with a variety of extreme conditions.

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
B1ab(ii,iii,v)+2ab(ii,iii,v)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
NatureServe

Reviewer/s
Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is listed as Vulnerable because its extent of occurrence may be less than 20,000 sq km, area of occupancy apparently is less than 500 sq km, viable populations may occur in no more than 10 locations, and the species is probably experiencing declines in area of occupancy, habitat extent and quality, and population size.

History
  • 1996
    Vulnerable
  • 1994
    Vulnerable
    (Groombridge 1994)
  • 1990
    Vulnerable
    (IUCN 1990)
  • 1988
    Vulnerable
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
  • 1986
    Vulnerable
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986)
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Global Short Term Trend: Unknown

Comments: The current status of this species is poorly known (Edwards et al. 2002), but probably it is declining.

Global Long Term Trend: Decline of 10-50%

Comments: Degree of long-term decline is uncertain. This species was eliminated from areas of the Pecos and Devils rivers that were inundated by Amistad Reservoir (Hubbs and Echelle 1972).

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Population

Population
This species is represented by probably fewer than 20 historical subpopulations; the number of extant, viable subpopulations might be no more than 10. The Texas Natural History Collections (1997) mapped 13 collection locations including 12 sites from Texas and one site from Mexico. Miller (2005) mapped 6 collection sites in Mexico.

Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000. This is the second most common fish species found in the Devils River, Texas (Lee et al. 1980). It is common in Independence Creek in Texas (see Bonner et al. 2008). Page and Burr (2011) regarded it as fairly common.

The degree of long-term decline is uncertain. This species was eliminated from areas of the Pecos and Devils rivers that were inundated by Amistad Reservoir (Hubbs and Echelle 1972).

The current status of this species is poorly known (Edwards et al. 2002), but it is probably declining.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Degree of Threat: B : Moderately threatened throughout its range, communities provide natural resources that when exploited alter the composition and structure of the community over the long-term, but are apparently recoverable

Comments: Threats include decreased spring flows, habitat loss and fragmentation, and alteration of flow regimes (Bonner et al. 2008). Increased stream turbidity, such as caused by overgrazing, reduces the abundance of this species (Hubbs and Echelle 1972). This species is resilient to flash floods but detrimentally impacted by dams (intolerant of reservoir conditions) (Bonner et al. 2008).

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Major Threats
Threats include decreased spring flows, habitat loss and fragmentation, and alteration of flow regimes (Bonner et al. 2008). Increased stream turbidity, such as caused by overgrazing, reduces the abundance of this species (Hubbs and Echelle 1972). This species is resilient to flash floods but detrimentally impacted by dams (intolerant of reservoir conditions) (Bonner et al. 2008).
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Vulnerable (VU) (B1+2c, D2)
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Management

Global Protection: Unknown whether any occurrences are appropriately protected and managed

Needs: Protect several major tributaries, prevent habitat destruction.

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Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Better information on abundance and trend at inhabited localities is needed.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

aquarium: commercial
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Wikipedia

Proserpine shiner

The Proserpine shiner (Cyprinella proserpina) is a species of ray-finned fish in the Cyprinidae family. It is found in Mexico and the United States. Its natural habitat is rivers.

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Removed from genus Notropis and placed in genus (formerly subgenus) Cyprinella by Mayden (1989); this change was adopted in the 1991 AFS checklist (Robins et al. 1991).

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