Overview

Comprehensive Description

Xyrichthys novacula (Linnaeus 1758)

Mediterranean Sea : 32500-882 (8 spc.), 09.11.2005 , Iskenderun Bay , trawl , 24 m, C. Dalyan ; 32500-883 (1 spc.), 09.11.2005 , Iskenderun Bay , trawl , 24 m, C. Dalyan .

  • Nurettin Meriç, Lütfiye Eryilmaz, Müfit Özulug (2007): A catalogue of the fishes held in the Istanbul University, Science Faculty, Hydrobiology Museum. Zootaxa 1472, 29-54: 49-49, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:428F3980-C1B8-45FF-812E-0F4847AF6786
Public Domain

MagnoliaPress via Plazi

Source: Plazi.org

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description: Body thin and long with a markedly narrowed eye (pre-transitional) to large and round (recruits) with a pointed snout and a terminal small mouth. Pectoral fins medium, reach to vent. Pelvic fins stubs. Dorsal and anal-fin bases long, caudal peduncle short. There are no surface or internal melanophores. Transitional recruits show a lateral stripe broken up into patches or spots and the first two dorsal-fin spines are extended.

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© www.coralreeffish.com by Benjamin Victor

Source: CORALREEFFISH.COM

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Biology

Inhabits clear shallow areas with sandy bottoms, usually in the vicinity of seagrass beds and corals (Ref. 2683). Feeds mainly on mollusks; also crabs and shrimps (Ref. 3726). A protogynous hermaphrodite; sexual dimorphism apparent in head shape and length of pelvic fin (Ref. 5292). Builds nests with coral debris. Dives head first into the sand when frightened (Ref. 9710). Marketed fresh (Ref. 3726).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico through the Caribbean to Brazil
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range Description

This species has a widespread tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic distribution from North Carolina to Santa Catarina, Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, in the western Atlantic. It is found from southern Spain to Gabon, including the Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde Islands and Sao Tome and Principe, in the Eastern Atlantic. It is also present throughout the Mediterranean Sea and the Sea of Marmara, but not in the Black Sea (D. Pollard pers. comm. 2008).

There is no record of this species in the oceanic islands of Brazil (C. Ferreira pers. comm. 2009).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 7251) through the Caribbean to Brazil. Eastern Atlantic: southern coast of Spain to south of Cape Lopez, Gabon and including the Mediterranean, Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde and Sao Tome Island.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Spain to Gabon, including Madeira and Canary Islands; western Atlantic.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 12; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 12
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Maximum size: 380 mm TL
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Max. size

38.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)); max. reported age: 8 years (Ref. 4742)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Diagnosis: The fin-ray count of D-IX,12 A-III,12 and Pect-12 indicates the razorfish genus Xyrichtys. One other regional labrid, Halichoeres cyanocephalus, shares the median-fin ray count, but has 13 pectoral-fin rays and a clearly different body shape. The three Caribbean razorfishes, X. martinicensis, X. novacula, and X. splendens, share fin-ray counts and the larvae overlap in appearance. The species become distinct as they develop juvenile markings: X. novacula recruits are recognized by lateral stripe broken up into patches or spots and the first two dorsal fin spines are extended. The extended dorsal fin spines persist until juveniles reach about 25 mm SL.

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© www.coralreeffish.com by Benjamin Victor

Source: CORALREEFFISH.COM

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

An elongate, very compressed fish with front of head forming a sharp edge. Snout very blunt; profile steep. Pale greenish, usually with no conspicuous markings on body (Ref. 26938). Head with alternating vertical lines of light blue and light yellow-orange (Ref. 13442).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Look Alikes

Analogues: Larval Xyrichtys have no melanophores and often markedly-narrowed eyes. The absence of external melanophores is shared with larval Doratonotus megalepis, which are distinctly wider-bodied and have large round eyes. All other regional labrid and scarid larvae have melanophores. X. novacula recruits have a lateral stripe broken up into patches or spots and the first two dorsal fin spines are extended while X. martinicensis recruits have an intact stripe and no extended first dorsal fin spines. X. splendens recruits develop a complex pattern of bars and reticulations.

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© www.coralreeffish.com by Benjamin Victor

Source: CORALREEFFISH.COM

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

benthic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species generally inhabits clear shallow areas with sandy substrates, usually in the vicinity of seagrass beds and coral reefs (Schneider 1990), although it can be found to 90m. It lives singly or in small groups (Golani et al. 2006).

It feeds mainly on molluscs, but also on crabs and shrimps (Gomon 1978).

This species is a protogynous hermaphrodite, with sexual dimorphism apparent in the shape of the head and the length of the pelvic fin (Gomon and Forsyth 1990). It builds nests out of coral debris in coral reef habitats. When disturbed it may dive head first into the sand (Lieske and Myers 1994).

The western Atlantic fish are generally smaller than the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean fish.

Systems
  • Marine
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 1 - 90 m (Ref. 3726)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 261 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 144 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.4 - 70
  Temperature range (°C): 20.329 - 27.438
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.174 - 8.951
  Salinity (PPS): 34.952 - 36.315
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.308 - 4.855
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.081 - 0.673
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 4.203

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.4 - 70

Temperature range (°C): 20.329 - 27.438

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.174 - 8.951

Salinity (PPS): 34.952 - 36.315

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.308 - 4.855

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.081 - 0.673

Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 4.203
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth: 1 - 90m.
From 1 to 90 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Xyrichtys novacula

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 35
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Barcode data: Xyrichtys novacula

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 7 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

AAAGATATTGGCACCCTTTACCTTATTTTCGGTGCTTGGGCCGGGATAGTGGGCACAGCCCTA---AGCCTGCTTATTCGGGCAGAACTAAGCCAACCCGGGGCCCTTCTTGGAGAC---GACCAAATTTACAATGTAATCGTCACAGCACATGCGTTTGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATTATAATTGGCGGATTTGGAAACTGACTTATTCCCCTGATG---ATCGGGGCCCCAGACATGGCGTTCCCTCGAATAAACAACATGAGCTTCTGACTTCTGCCCCCCTCCTTTTTACTCCTCCTAGCATCGTCTGGGGTAGAAGCTGGGGCCGGGACAGGTTGAACCGTCTACCCCCCACTAGCTGGAAACCTTGCGCATGCGGGTGCATCCGTTGATCTA---ACAATTTTCTCCCTGCATCTTGCAGGGATTTCTTCAATCCTAGGGGCAATTAATTTTATTACAACAATTATTAACATAAAACCCCCTGCTATTTCTCAGTACCAAACCCCTTTATTTGTCTGAGCCGTCCTTATTACAGCCGTCCTACTTCTTCTTTCCCTACCCGTTCTTGCCGCC---GGTATCACAATGCTCCTTACAGACCGAAACCTGAACACAACCTTCTTTGATCCTGCCGGGGGAGGTGACCCAATTCTTTACCAACATTTATTTTGATTTTTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Pollard, D., Rocha, L., Ferreira, C.E., Francini-Filho, R. & Moura, R.R.

Reviewer/s
Sadovy, Y. & Carpenter, K.E.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread throughout the western and eastern sub-tropical and tropical Atlantic, as well as the entire Mediterranean Sea. It is commercially fished in some countries. The population status of this species is currently unknown, though it is thought to be stable, with no evidence of any declines. This species is therefore listed as Least Concern.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
There is no population information available for this species. However, it is considered common in the majority of its range.

For example, this species is common in Lebanon and Sicily in the Mediterranean Sea, but there is little or no population information available for it throughout most of its Mediterranean range (D. Pollard pers. comm. 2008). In the western Atlantic, this species is relatively common throughout most of its range. It is also common in the Azores islands on shallower sandy habitats (P. Afonso pers. comm. 2008).

Population Trend
Stable
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Least Concern (LC)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no specific conservation measures in place for this species. Its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial; price category: very high; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Pearly razorfish

The pearly razorfish or cleaver wrasse, Xyrichtys novacula, is a species of wrasse. It is of minor importance to local commercial fisheries and is popular as a game fish. It can also be found in the aquarium trade.[2]

Description[edit]

Xyrichtys novacula can reach 38 cm (15 in) in total length, though most do not exceed 20 cm (7.9 in). Its body is elongate and very compressed laterally, head is flattened, with a steep profile and sharp teeth. Its long dorsal fin extends along most of its back, as well as anal, pectoral, and pelvic fins. It has 9 dorsal spines, 12 dorsal soft rays, 3 anal spines and 12 anal soft rays. This wrasse has a yellow-orange or reddish-pink color that is darker on the back and lighter on the belly, sometimes marked with green and gray stripes. Head shows vertical narrow light blue lines and there are scales with brisk reflexes on the abdomen. Upon capture, this fish has been known to turn its mouth and sharp protuding teeth past 90 degrees to either side in relationship to its own body as an attempt to be released from capture. [2]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The pearly razorfish is widespread throughout the western and eastern subtropical and tropical Atlantic Ocean, as well as the Mediterranean Sea. It inhabits clear, shallow littoral areas with sandy or muddy bottoms, at depths of 1 to 20 m. In winter it migrates to greater depths, up to 90–150 m.

Behavior and diet[edit]

Xyrichtys novacula buries itself rapidly in the bottom when disturbed. It feeds on small invertebrates such as crustaceans, mollusks and echinoderms.[2]

X. novaculae caught in Santorini, Greece

Synonyms[edit]

A large number of specific names have been determined to refer to this species as junior synonyms:[2]

Predators[edit]

The Pearly razorfish has been shown to be successful bait for the Greater Amberjack species (aka reef donkey).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pollard, D., Rocha, L., Ferreira, C.E., Francini-Filho, R. & Moura, R.R. 2010. Xyrichtys novacula. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 18 November 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Xyrichtys novacula" in FishBase. October 2013 version.
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!