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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Relatively an uncommon inhabitant of rubble or weedy coralline-rock bottoms of reef flats and lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Flashes its inner pectoral fins when disturbed (Ref. 9710). Can inflict a painful injury with its venomous dorsal sting. Often partly buried (Ref. 48635).
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Distribution

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to the Hawaiian Islands and French Polynesia, north to southern Japan, south to the Great Barrier Reef and New Caledonia.
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian and Marquesas islands, north to South Korea and southern Japan, south to North West Cape (Western Australia), Elizabeth and Middleton reefs, New Caledonia and Tong
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 8 - 10; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 5 - 6
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Size

Maximum size: 300 mm NG
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Max. size

30.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710))
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Relatively an uncommon inhabitant of rubbly or weedy coralline-rock bottoms of reef flats and lagoon and seaward reefs to a depth of 70 m. Can inflict a painful injury with its venomous dorsal sting.
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Pectoral fin rays usually 18; back arched; with about 45 vertical scale rows; lachrymal bone with 2 or 3 spines over maxillary, first points forward, followed by 1 or by 2 close-set spines which point down and back; suborbital ridge with 4 or more spinous points, usually more than 8 or 10 points, not in a row and of various sizes; a shallow pit below front corner of eye (Ref. 10482). Colorful inside the pectoral fins, used for display (Ref. 48635).
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Type Information

Type for Scorpaenopsis catocala
Catalog Number: USNM 50651
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Collector(s): D. Jordan & B. Evermann
Locality: Honolulu, Hawaii, Oahu, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Islands, Pacific
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 1 - 70 m (Ref. 559)
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Depth range based on 67 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 45 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.15 - 162.5
  Temperature range (°C): 24.610 - 29.336
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.045 - 1.204
  Salinity (PPS): 32.200 - 35.893
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.427 - 4.835
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.055 - 0.351
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.094 - 4.892

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.15 - 162.5

Temperature range (°C): 24.610 - 29.336

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.045 - 1.204

Salinity (PPS): 32.200 - 35.893

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.427 - 4.835

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.055 - 0.351

Silicate (umol/l): 1.094 - 4.892
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 1 - 70m.
From 1 to 70 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Trophic Strategy

Found inshore (Ref. 75154).
  • Parrish, J.D., J.E. Norris, M.W. Callahan, J.K. Callahan, E.J. Magarifuji and R.E. Schroeder 1986 Piscivory in a coral reef fish community. p. 285-297. In C.A. Simenstad and G.M. Cailliet (eds.) Contemporary studies on fish feeding. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. (Ref. 2763)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=2763&speccode=4908 External link.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Scorpaenopsis diabolus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 7 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ATGGTCGGCACCGCTCTA---AGCCTTCTCATTCGAGCTGAGCTTAGCCAACCCGGAGCTCTTCTGGGCGAC---GACCAGATCTATAACGTAATCGTTACGGCACACGCATTTGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATCATGATTGGAGGCTTCGGAAATTGACTTATTCCTCTAATG---ATCGGMGCCCCCGACATGGCATTCCCTCGAATAAACAATATAAGCTTCTGACTACTCCCTCCTTCCTTTCTACTCCTCCTGGCTTCCTCAGGGGTAGAAGCCGGAGCTGGRACAGGATGAACTGTCTACCCCCCCTTAGCAGGAAACTTAGCCCACGCAGGAGCTTCCGTTGATCTA---ACCATCTTCTCACTTCATCTAGCAGGGATCTCCTCAATTCTAGGGGCCATCAACTTCATCACAACAATTATTAACATGAAACCTCCAGCCATCTCTCAATACCAAACACCTCTRTTTGTTTGAGCTGTTCTAATTACGGCTGTCCTTCTTCTCCTATCCCTTCCTGTACTTGCTGCY---GGCATCACCATGCTTCTAACTGACCGAAACCTAAACACCACCTTCTTTGACCCAGCGGGAGGTGGAGACCCMATCCTCTATCAACATCTGTTCTGATTCTTCGGCCACCCAGAAGTATACATTCTTATCCTCCCCGGVTTCGGCATGATTTCCCACATCGTTGCATACTACTCCGGTAAAAAA---GAACCCTTCGGCTACATAGGAATGGTTTGAGCTATGATGGCAATCGGCCTTCTAGGCTTTATCGTATGAGCTCACCACATGTTTACAGTTGGAATGGACGTAGACACACGTGCCTAC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Scorpaenopsis diabolus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 14
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

aquarium: commercial
  • Miyasaka, A. 1993 A database on scientific and common names of fishes exported from Hawaii. The information was derived from the above mentioned database. A printout of the names is also available from the State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources, 1151 Punchbowl Street, Honolulu, Hawaii. (Ref. 5358)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5358&speccode=4306 External link.
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Wikipedia

Scorpaenopsis diabolus

The false stonefish or the devil scorpionfish[1] (Scorpaenopsis diabolus) is a carnivorous ray-finned fish in the order Scorpaeniformes, the scorpionfishes and flatheads. It has venomous spines and lives in the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is a bottom-dwelling predator that relies on its camouflage to catch passing prey.

Description[edit]

The false stonefish has a broad head with a wide mouth, a humped back, and a tapering body, and can reach 30 cm (12 in) in length.[1] Its dorsal fin has 12 venomous spines and eight to 10 soft rays. The anal fin has three spines and five to six soft rays. The skin is rough with low conical projections, spines, and tassels. The colouring is a combination of mottled grey and white with reddish-brown blotches and the fish is well-camouflaged among stones and corals. The inner sides of the broad pectoral fins have orange, black, and white blotches and the fins can be "flashed" as a warning. This fish closely resembles the reef stonefish (Synanceia verrucosa).[2][3]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The false stonefish is found at depths to about 70 m (230 ft) in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Its range extends from South and East Africa and the Red Sea to Japan, Hawaii, French Polynesia, Australia, and New Caledonia. It is found on the seabed among rubble, seaweed-covered rocks or on rocks encrusted with coralline algae on reef flats, lagoons, and the seaward side of reefs.[2]

Biology[edit]

The false stonefish is a bottom-dwelling fish and is sometimes partially covered with sediment. It is an ambush predator and feeds on passing prey such as invertebrates and small fish.[3] It flares its pectoral fins as a warning if disturbed by a potential predator. Its venomous dorsal spines can inflict a painful wound.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "False Stonefish, Scorpaenopsis diabolus (Cuvier, 1829)". Australian Museum. Retrieved 2014-01-07. 
  2. ^ a b c "Scorpaenopsis diabolus (Cuvier, 1829): False stonefish". FishBase. Retrieved 2014-01-01. 
  3. ^ a b King, Dennis; Fraser, Valda (2002). More Reef Fishes & Nudibranchs: East and South Coast of Southern Africa. Struik. p. 28. ISBN 9781868726868. 
  • Allen, G.R. 1997. Marine Fishes of Tropical Australia and South-east Asia. Western Australian Museum. p. 292.
  • Allen, G.R. & R. Swainston. 1988. The Marine Fishes of North-western Australia. A Field Guide for Anglers and Divers. Western Australian Museum. p. 201.
  • Kuiter, R.H. 1996. Guide to Sea Fishes of Australia. New Holland. p. 433.
  • Myers, R.F. 1999. Micronesian Reef Fishes. Coral Graphics. p. 330.Poss. S.G. Scorpaenidae. in Carpenter, K.E. & V.H. Niem. 1999. The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). FAO. Rome pp. iii-v, 2069-2790.
  • Randall, J.E. 2005. Reef and Shore Fishes of the South Pacific: New Caledonia to Tahiti and the Pitcairn Islands. University of Hawai'i Press. p. 584.
  • Randall, J.E., Allen, G.R. & R.C. Steene. 1997. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. Crawford House Press. p. 557.
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