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BiologyFound from estuaries to edge of continental shelves over sand and sandy shell seabed (Ref. 9258). Reported to be often found in rivers (Ref. 4316). Juveniles may occur in bays (Ref. 33616). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Dorsal spine reported to be venomous (Ref. 9771). Neither anterolateral glandular grooves nor venom gland is present (Ref. 57406). Current information in the table (dangerous fish) do not match; needs verification. Excellent food fish (Ref. 9771). Utilized fresh and frozen; eaten pan-fried, broiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).