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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found near prominent current-swept lagoon or seaward reefs (Ref. 9710); also in bays, estuaries and turbid inner lagoons (Ref. 9768). Diurnal and solitary, although the young form schools. Feeds mainly on fishes but also takes squid. Sold fresh, frozen or dried salted. Reports of ciguatera poisoning need confirmation.
  • De Sylva, D.P. and F. Williams 1986 Sphyraenidae. p. 721-726. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 5491)
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Distribution

Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea (Ref. 12541) south to the southeastern coast of South Africa and east to New Caledonia and Vanuatu. Recently reported from Tonga (Ref. 53797). Due to a widespread confusion with Sphyraena putnamae and Sphyraena qenie, the exact range is uncertain.
  • De Sylva, D.P. and F. Williams 1986 Sphyraenidae. p. 721-726. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 5491)
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Gulf of Aden, East Africa, KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Fiji and Tonga, north to Taiwan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia) and New Caledonia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 6; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9; Analspines: 2; Analsoft rays: 7 - 9
  • Senou, H. 2001 Sphyraenidae. Barracudas. p. 3685-3697. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9768)
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Size

Maximum size: 1500 mm TL
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Max. size

150 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 2871)); max. published weight: 11.5 kg (Ref. 40637)
  • Bianchi, G. 1985 FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Field guide to the commercial marine and brackish-water species of Tanzania. Prepared and published with the support of TCP/URT/4406 and FAO (FIRM) Regular Programme. FAO, Rome. 199 p. (Ref. 2871)
  • IGFA 2001 Database of IGFA angling records until 2001. IGFA, Fort Lauderdale, USA. (Ref. 40637)
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Diagnostic Description

Body with dark bars crossing lateral line, each bar oblique in upper half, but nearly vertical in lower half; caudal fin largely yellowish.Description: Characterized further by having rounded corner of preopercle, without projecting flap; erect teeth; maxilla reaching below anterior edge of eye; moderate size of eye; origin of first dorsal fin slightly behind origin of pelvic fins; deeply forked caudal fin without inner lobes; lateral line scales 139-140; absence of gill rakers (rough platelets on lower limb of first arch, no spinules); depth of body 7.9-8.9 in SL (Ref. 90102).
  • Senou, H. 2001 Sphyraenidae. Barracudas. p. 3685-3697. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9768)
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Description

Inhabits bays, estuaries and turbid inner lagoons (Ref. 9768). Diurnal and solitary, although the young forms schools. Feeds mainly on fishes, also squid. Also caught with set nets (Ref. 9768). Sold fresh, frozen or dried salted in markets. Claims of ciguatera poisoning by eating this fish need confirmation.
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); brackish; marine; depth range 20 - 200 m (Ref. 28016), usually ? - 60 m (Ref. 90102)
  • Allen, G.R. and M.V. Erdmann 2012 Reef fishes of the East Indies. Perth, Australia: Universitiy of Hawai'i Press, Volumes I-III. Tropical Reef Research. (Ref. 90102)
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
  • al Sakaff, H. and M. Esseen 1999 Occurrence and distribution of fish species off Yemen (Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea). Naga ICLARM Q. 22(1):43-47. (Ref. 28016)
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Depth range based on 84 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 22 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 140
  Temperature range (°C): 20.420 - 28.199
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.154 - 10.882
  Salinity (PPS): 32.916 - 35.468
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.877 - 4.932
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.081 - 1.043
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.567 - 17.115

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.5 - 140

Temperature range (°C): 20.420 - 28.199

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.154 - 10.882

Salinity (PPS): 32.916 - 35.468

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.877 - 4.932

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.081 - 1.043

Silicate (umol/l): 0.567 - 17.115
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 20 - 200m.
From 20 to 200 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Found near prominent current-swept lagoon or seaward reefs (Ref. 9710); also in bays, estuaries and turbid inner lagoons (Ref. 9768). Diurnal and solitary, although the young form schools. Feeds mainly on fishes but also takes squid. Sold fresh, frozen or dried salted. Reports of ciguatera poisoning need confirmation.
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Migration

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Trophic Strategy

Juveniles occur in mangroves and brackishwaters as nursery grounds; adults inhabit reefs and shallow waters (Ref. 43081).
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Diseases and Parasites

Pseudopecoeloides Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Arthur, J.R. and S. Lumanlan-Mayo 1997 Checklist of the parasites of fishes of the Philippines. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. 369, 102 p. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 26129)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Sphyraena jello

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 5 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CCTCTACCTACTATTTGGCGCCTGGGCTGGGATGGTAGGTACAGCTCTAAGCCTACTTATTCGAGCCGAACTTAGTCAACCGGGCTCTCTCTTAGGAGACGACCAAATTTATAATGTTATCGTAACAGCACACGCCTTTGTAATAATCTTTTTTATGGTAATACCCATTATGATTGGGGGCTTTGGGAACTGACTTATTCCCCTAATAATTGGCGCTCCAGACATAGCATTCCCCCGAATAAATAATATAAGCTTTTGACTACTCCCCCCTTCCTTTCTCTTACTCCTTTCTTCTTCGGCTGTAGAAGCGGGGGCCGGGACAGGATGGACAGTTTATCCTCCCTTAGCTGGAAATTTGGCCCATGCAGGAGCATCCGTCGACCTAACCATTTTCTCCCTTCACCTGGCAGGTATTTCTTCAATCCTAGGGGCTATTAATTTTATTACCACTATTATTAACATGAAACCAGCGGCGACTTCAATGTACCAAATTCCTCTGTTCGTTTGGGCTGTACTAATCACTGCCGTTCTCCTTCTCCTTTCACTCCCTGTCTTAGCTGCTGGTATTACAATGCTCTTGACAGATCGAAATCTAAACACCGCCTTCTTTGACCCAGCAGGAGGAGGAGACCCCATTCTGTACCAGCACTTATTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sphyraena jello

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 8
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Genomic DNA is available from 1 specimen with morphological vouchers housed at Ocean Genome Legacy
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
  • International Game Fish Association 1991 World record game fishes. International Game Fish Association, Florida, USA. (Ref. 4699)
  • Rose, J.H. 1984 Sphyraenidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Vol. 4. FAO, Rome. pag. var. (Ref. 4752)
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Wikipedia

Pickhandle barracuda

The pickhandle barracuda (Sphyraena jello) is so called because the dark marks along its sides look like the thick ends of pickaxe handles.

Sea anglers sometimes colloquially shorten the name to "pick".

References

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