Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

The adults spawn in the lake proper at a depth range of 0.5 to 3 m, over fine gravel. Two spawning stocks are known: one spawns in the northwestern corner of the lake from the beginning of November till the end of December; the other spawns at the southeastern corner, from the middle or the end of January till the end of March. This fish approaches the coast twice a year: from April till July and from October till December. In mid winter and at the end of summer, it leaves the coasts to stay at greater depth. Adults feed exclusively on sand hoppers (Amphipoda) (Ref. 593).
  • Berg, L.S. 1962 Freshwater fishes of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries. volume 1, 4th edition. Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd, Jerusalem. (Russian version published 1948). (Ref. 593)
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Distribution

Former USSR: Armenia, Lake Sevan.
  • Berg, L.S. 1962 Freshwater fishes of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries. volume 1, 4th edition. Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd, Jerusalem. (Russian version published 1948). (Ref. 593)
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Armenia.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 1040 mm TL
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Max. size

104 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 593)); max. published weight: 17.0 kg (Ref. 593)
  • Berg, L.S. 1962 Freshwater fishes of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries. volume 1, 4th edition. Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd, Jerusalem. (Russian version published 1948). (Ref. 593)
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

demersal; freshwater
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Needs better reference.
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott 1991 World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p. (Ref. 4537)
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Wikipedia

Sevan trout

The Sevan trout (Salmo ischchan) is an endemic fish species of Lake Sevan in Armenia (Armenian: իշխան išxan). It is a salmonid fish related to the brown trout.

Gegharkuni (Salmo ischchan gegarkuni)

The fish is endangered, because various competitors were introduced into the lake during the Soviet period, including common whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) from Lake Ladoga, goldfish (Carassius auratus) and narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus); and because of lake level change. On the other hand, the Sevan trout itself has been successfully introduced to the Issyk Kul lake in Kyrgyzstan.[1]

A resolution by Armenia's Council of Ministers in 1976 stopped the commercial fishing of Sevan trout and organized National Park "Sevan".[citation needed] The fish are nowadays also reared in hatcheries.[2]

The Sevan trout has four[2][1] (or two[3]) distinct strains differing in their breeding time and place, and growth rate:

The winter bakhtak is the largest form and can grow to considerable size, up to 90 cm and 15 kg. It breeds within the lake.[1] The summer bakhtak is smaller (<50 cm), and breeds naturally both in rivers and within lake near river mouths.[2] Gegharkuni is a migratory form that naturally breeds exclusively in rivers; it also feeds on plankton in addition to benthos.[2] Bojak in turn is a dwarfed form that breeds within the lake in the winter, and does not exceed 33 cm and 0.25 kg.[1]

Water level regulation has been destructive for sevan trout reproduction. Currently, the summer bakhtak and gegharkuni are mainly propagated by hatcheries. The winter bakhtak and bojak may be extinct within the lake.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Севанская форель, ишхан, Salmo ischchan Kessler, 1877 www.internevod.com
  2. ^ a b c d e Gabrielyan, B.K. (2001) An annotated checklist of freshwater fishes of Armenia. Naga vol. 24, 23-29.
  3. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2011). "Salmo ischchan" in FishBase. July 2011 version.
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