Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

An onshore schooling species occurring on coastal beaches, sandbars, and surf zones as well as open bays, estuaries, coastal lakes (Ref. 6205), and rivers as far as tidal limits (Ref. 6390). Keep away from shore when older. Live almost exclusively on sandy ground. Juveniles and adolescents are abundant in shallow waters of rivers and creeks, over seagrass beds and in mangroves (Ref. 6223), although they tend to move into deeper water as they grow older (Ref. 6390). Larvae are present in river mouths and mangrove areas most of the year (Ref. 27634). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Feed mostly on polychaetes and crustaceans. Also caught using tunnel nets (Ref. 6205).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Western Pacific: east coast of Australia from Cape York (rare) and the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland to eastern Victoria, Ulverstone on northeast coast of Tasmania; Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, Woodlark Islands, and Papua New Guinea. Bleeker's records (Ref. 1502, 1843) from Batavia and Java were in error (Ref. 4899).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Western Pacific.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16 - 18; Analspines: 2; Analsoft rays: 15 - 17; Vertebrae: 32 - 34
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Maximum size: 510 mm TL
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Max. size

51.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 6205)); max. published weight: 1,400 g (Ref. 6390); max. reported age: 22 years (Ref. 1254)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

The shape of the swim bladder is not distinguishable from that of S. analis. Anterior part of the swim bladder with rudimentary tubules projecting anteriorly and a series laterally that diminish in size and become sawtooth-like posteriorly. The coloration of adult specimens is uniform, without darker bars or blotches. A dark spot is present at the base of the pectoral fin in younger individuals.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Environment

demersal; non-migratory; brackish; marine; depth range ? - 46 m (Ref. 6335), usually 20 - 22 m
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 2 - 2
  Temperature range (°C): 26.803 - 26.803
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.090 - 0.090
  Salinity (PPS): 34.975 - 34.975
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.666 - 4.666
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.131 - 0.131
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.005 - 1.005
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth: 0 - 46m.
Recorded at 46 meters.

Habitat: demersal. An onshore schooling species occurring on coastal beaches, sandbars, and surf zones as well as open bays, estuaries and coastal lakes; sometimes taken from offshore waters to 40 m during winter. Keeps away from shore when older. Lives almost exclusively on sandy ground. Feeds mostly on polychaetes and crustaceans. Also caught using tunnel nets (Ref. 6205).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Occur in coastal beaches, sandbars and surf zones as well as open bays, estuaries and coastal lakes; specimens have occasionally been taken in offshore waters to 40 m during winter. May be said to live exclusively on sandy ground. Adults gather around the mouths of estuaries, bars and pits, in depths down to 5 m. Juveniles inhabit shallow areas with some seagrass (Ref. 6205). Sand whiting forage for burrowing or benthic animals by using their conical snout to plough through sand or mud (Ref. 6390). Juveniles (1-5 cm FL) favour unvegetated, marine habitats as nursery areas (West & King, 1996) in northern New South Wales, and in Botany Bay, Zostera seagrass beds are important habitats (Ref. 6223).Food selection changes with fish size (smaller fish eat fewer polychaetes; larger fish eat a lot of bivalves and yabbies (Ref. 6390).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Sand whiting probably spawn twice each season (Ref. 1254, 27633). Spawning occurs at peak high tide, at night, and 1-2 days before the new moon (Ref. 6390).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Sillago ciliata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 6 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

TCAACCAACCACAAAGACATTGGCACCCTTTATTTAGTATTCGGAGCCTGAGCAGGTATAGTGGGTACAGCCCTA---AGCCTGCTTATTCGAGCAGAACTAAGCCAACCCGGCGCTCTGCTTGGAGAC---GACCAAATCTATAATGTGATTGTTACAGCGCATGCCTTTGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATCCTGATCGGGGGGTTTGGAAACTGACTAATTCCCCTAATG---ATTGGGGCCCCTGACATGGCATTCCCTCGAATAAACAACATGAGCTTTTGACTCCTCCCCCCTTCTTTCCTGCTCCTCCTCGCTTCATCGGGCGTAGAGGCCGGGGCCGGAACTGGCTGAACAGTTTACCCCCCTCTGGCTGGAAACCTAGCCCATGCAGGAGCTTCCGTCGATTTA---ACCATCTTCTCCCTCCACCTAGCTGGGGTTTCTTCAATTCTAGGGGCAATCAACTTCATTACAACAATTATCAATATGAAGCCTCCCGCAATTTCACAGTACCAAACCCCCCTATTCGTATGGTCTGTCCTAATTACAGCTGTTCTTCTGCTTCTGTCACTTCCCGTGCTAGCAGCT---GGTATCACAATACTTCTTACAGACCGAAATTTAAATACCACCTTCTTTGACCCTGCTGGAGGAGGAGATCCAATTCTTTACCAACACCTGTTTTGATTCTTTGGCCACCCAGAAGTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sillago ciliata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 16
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: experimental; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums; price category: very high; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Sand whiting

The sand whiting, Sillago ciliata, (also known as the summer whiting, yellowfin whiting or blue-nose whiting) is a common species of coastal marine fish of the family Sillaginidae, the smelt-whitings. It is a slender, slightly compressed fish that is very similar to other species of Sillago, with detailed spine, ray and lateral line scale counts needed to distinguish the species between its nearest relative Sillago analis. The sand whiting is distributed along the east coast of Australia from Cape York south to Tasmania, as well as Lord Howe Island and New Caledonia in the Pacific Ocean.

The sand whiting commonly inhabits shallow sandy substrates in bays, estuaries and surf zones where it preys on polychaete worms, small crustaceans and bivalve molluscs. Reproduction in the species is variable over its range, generally spawning twice between September and April. Young fish inhabit shallow sand flats, both along the coast and well into the upper reaches of estuaries.

First described in 1829, the species has long been prized as a table fish and is commonly sought by both recreational and commercial fishermen in New South Wales and Queensland. The sand whiting fishery is most prolific in southern Queensland and northern New South Wales where the species is most abundant, often caught along other species of whiting in estuaries and from beaches. Due to its importance as a commercial fish, substantial research has been carried out on the species, especially feasibility studies involving the use of sand whiting in aquaculture.

Contents

Taxonomy and naming

The sand whiting belongs to the genus Sillago, a division of the smelt whiting family Sillaginidae containing 29 individual species. The Sillaginidae are in the suborder Percoidei, a division of the Perciformes.[1]

The species was first identified and named by the French naturalist Georges Cuvier in 1829 after receiving a specimen that was listed as having been collected in the "Southern seas". This holotype specimen was apparently taken near the coastline of Tasmania, Australia.[2] Four junior synonyms were subsequently placed on the species, with Castelnau applying both S. insularis and S. terra-reginae, Thiollière applying S. diadoi and Whitley S. ciliata diadoi to the species. All of these names are invalid under the ICZN nomenclature rules, which states that the first correct naming is the one to be used. Many of these synonyms were applied due to confusion over S. ciliata and the nearly identical, closely related species S. analis. The species was also misidentified as S. gracilis, a synonym of S. maculata, the trumpeter whiting; and also S. bassensis, the southern school whiting.[2]

S. ciliata is most commonly called the 'sand whiting' in reference to its preference for sandy substrates compared to some members of the genus which prefer muddy, silty, or grassy substrates.[3] Other common names include the 'blue-nose whiting' in reference to the colour of the nose in fish of larger sizes, and 'summer whiting', a name often applied to S. analis as well. This name is applied to these species as they move from deeper offshore waters into shallow beach and estuarine waters in summer, where they become a target for recreational fishers.

Description

Three sand whiting

The sand whiting has a very similar profile to other members of the genus Sillago, with a slightly compressed, elongate body tapering toward the terminal mouth. The dorsal fin is in two parts, the first made of feeble spines and the second of soft rays headed by a single feeble spine, while the ventral profile is straight.[4] The species is known to grow to a maximum size of 51 cm and around 1.25 kg weight.[3]

The fin anatomy is highly useful for identification purposes, with the species having 11 spines in the first dorsal fin, with one spine and 16 or 18 soft rays on the second dorsal fin. The anal fin has two spines with 15 to 17 soft rays posterior to the spines. Lateral line scales and cheek scales are also distinctive, with sand whiting possessing 60 to 69 lateral line scales and cheek scales positioned in 3-4 rows, all of which are ctenoid. The amount of vertebrae are also diagnostic, having 32 to 34 in total. The swim bladder has rudimentary tubules projecting anteriorly and a series laterally that diminish in size and become sawtooth-like posteriorly. The posterior extension is a single, tapering projection that extends well into the caudal region. A duct like process extends from the ventral surface to the urogenital opening. Swim bladder morphology is useless when determining between S. ciliata and S. analis, as they are nearly identical.[2]

The body is a pale brown or silvery brown colour, transitioning to white below, with green, mauve and rosy reflections when the fish is first removed from the water. An indistinct silver-yellow mid-lateral band extends across some specimens. The spinous dorsal fin is olive green with faint darker blotches, the second dorsal fin also a pale olive with rows of dark brown to blackish spots. The anal and ventral fins are pale yellow, the pectorals are pale yellow to pale brown with a well defined dark blue-black blotch at the base. The caudal fin is yellow to olive in colour with darker margins. Juveniles less than 90 mm may have darker blotches along their sides and backs.[2]

Distribution and habitat

The sand whiting inhabits a range along the east coast of Australia from Cape York, Queensland, southward along the coast and the Great Barrier Reef to eastern Victoria and the east coast of Tasmania down to Southport. The species also inhabits a number of islands; Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, and Woodlark Island, Papua New Guinea. The species is most abundant in lower Queensland and New South Wales, where studies show it inhabits every estuary sampled throughout the course of a study,[5] while in north Queensland, the species is very patchily distributed along the coast.[6]

The sand whiting is an inshore species, inhabiting exposed coastal areas such as beaches, sandbars and surf zones as well as quieter bays, estuaries and coastal lakes. Sand whiting enter estuaries, including intermittently open ones, and penetrate far upstream to the tidal limits of rivers and creeks where juveniles and adolescent fish may be abundant.[7] The adults congregate around the mouths of estuaries, bars, and spits, in depths down to 5 m[8] where they may constitute a large percentage of the icthyofauna of such regions.[9] As implied by their name, they are often found exclusively over sandy substrates, with occasional appearances in Zostera seagrass beds.[5] Individuals are occasionally taken in offshore waters to 40 m during winter.

Biology

Behaviour

The sand whiting is a schooling species,[10] whose movements are associated with a variety of factors including prey, lunar patterns and spawning movements; although there appears to be little consistency in its movements in relation to these factors. Studies on the species over the period of a year have shown the species does not change its local distribution over the course of a day, generally being of the same abundance during both night and day.[9] Seasonal abundance due to spawning is variable, with studies conducted in Moreton Bay, Queensland finding the species recruits heavily to shallow waters and increase numbers during winter months, while studies in the Noosa River estuary have shown no difference in numbers recruited over the course of a season.[11] Like other sillaginids, they have the ability to 'burrow' into the sand and remained hidden until a predator or seine net has passed by.[3]

Diet

The sand whiting's distinctive body shape and mouth placement is an adaptation to bottom feeding, which is the predominant method of feeding for all whiting species. All larger whiting feed by using their protrusile jaws and tube-like mouths to suck up various types of prey from in, on or above the ocean substrate,[12] as well as using their nose as a 'plough' to dig through the substrate.[3] There is a large body of evidence that shows whiting do not rely on visual cues when feeding, instead using a system based on the vibrations emitted by their prey.[13]

S. ciliata is a benthic carnivore that feeds predominantly on polychaetes and various crustaceans.[14] Like other species of Sillago, the diet of the species is related to the size and age of the individual,[12] with three distinct size classes identified in a study conducted in Botany Bay, NSW. The smallest fish of 0–10 mm take large amount of amphipods and few polychaetes, while fish between 11 and 20 cm consume mostly neried polychaetes and few amphipods. The largest fish over 21 cm take large amounts of bivalve molluscs and shrimps of the genus Callianassa.[15]

Reproduction

As with many species of fish, the timing of spawning varies over the range of the species, with gonad development indicating that spawning in the southern New South Wales region occurs from December to April,[15] while spawning in southern Queensland occurs from September to February.[16] Spawning takes place twice a year, evident by the two classes of egg size found in the ovaries and by the two recruitment pulses observed each year as young fish enter their juvenile habitats.[17] The spawning takes place at the mouths of estuaries or in surf zones, with the larvae occurring in fully marine waters.[18] Juveniles reach 16.5 cm in length after their first year of life, 26.7 cm after their second year and 30.5 cm after their third year.[19] After the beginning of the spawning season young whiting of 10 mm and over can be observed swimming actively in small droves of from 10 to 20 on the sand flats and beaches to which they are recruited, moving up and down with the tide, swimming in very shallow water to depths of 1 m.[11] Unlike closely related sillaginids, the juveniles usually prefer unprotected sand substrates, while other species tend to use seagrass and mangroves as protection.[20] As they grow older they keep further from the shore.

Relationship to humans

The sand whiting is a highly prized table fish often rated equal to the King George whiting,[10] making it a common target for both commercial and recreational fisheries. The flesh is white, tender and has a moist, low oil content composition, making it easily digestible.[19] Investigations into the aquaculture of the species began in the 1980s, and has led to the development of farmed sand whiting.

Commercial fishery

Although the sand whiting ranges down to Victoria and Tasmania, the species is not common enough to make up a significant part of their fisheries, with other sillaginids such as school whiting and stout whiting making up the bulk of the catch. In New South Wales and Queensland, however, it is one of the most common species taken, especially in lower Queensland. The species is often not differentiated from golden-lined whiting or trumpeter whiting, meaning fisheries statistics do not reflect the total catch for the species. In 2000, 238 tonnes of whiting were taken in Queensland, a decrease from the past 4 years.[21] The species is primarily taken in estuaries in New South Wales, and is also included under the general heading of 'school whiting' when taken from beaches.[22] Research showed that the average commercial harvest from individual estuaries was around 1-2 tonnes per year, with an increase in most rivers during the 1970s and 80's.[23]

The species is commonly taken by a number of fishing methods, with the most common being seine nets. Ring, fence, fyke netting and beam trawling are also used occasionally, but more often associated with sampling the entire population for research purposes.[24] Research has focused on the effectiveness of different mesh sizes used to net the species in order to prevent juvenile individuals dying after becoming enmeshed.[25] Associated research has also shown that those whiting that survive and are discarded tend to have much lower survival rates due to scale loss, which is a major issue, as many young fish are regularly taken in such nets and released by the fisherman after sustaining scale loss.[26] These studies have led to a number of proposals and subsequent changes to net regulations.[27]

At market, sand whiting is medium priced fish, sold fresh or frozen; whole and in fillet form. In abundance, sand whiting is moderately priced, with fillets being slightly more expensive. The recovery rate of fillets from whole fish is about 40%.[28] Sand whiting may be used as sashimi.

Recreational fishery

Sand whiting taken near Byron Bay, NSW

Sand whiting are commonly sought after by anglers due to their reputation as a food fish, and due to their relative accessibility, with large catches possible from many shore-based locations. The catches of recreational fishermen may exceed the catches of professionals, with studies showing Queensland had over twice the amount of fish taken by anglers in 2000.[21]

The species is commonly caught throughout its habitat, with sand flats, tidal gutters in estuaries and surf beaches commonly having producing good catches. Excessively shallow water, especially in proximity to Zostera beds may produce numerous undersized fish, and may be avoided if the young fish are too prevalent. Due to their preferred habitat, light lines with minimal weight added are employed to avoid spooking the fish, with a small running bean or ball sinker commonly rigged above a size 4 or 6 hook.[29] Specialist whiting fishermen often use a red piece of tubing or beads to attract the whiting; whether this works has yet to be proved, but anecdotal evidence shows the fishermen's catches don't suffer. Baits used resemble the species natural prey, with prawns, nippers, a variety of bivalves and beach worms most often used, with more successful catches obtained using live bait.[30]

In New South Wales, sand whiting have a minimum legal length of 27 cm to be taken and a daily personal bag limit of 20 applies,[31] while in Queensland there is a minimum size of 23 cm and a combined bag limit of 30 for all whiting species.[32]

Sand whiting are used themselves as live bait for larger species such as mulloway, mangrove jack and large flathead, although anglers must still adhere to the minimum size limit.[33]

Aquaculture

The aquaculture potential for sand whiting was first investigated in the late 1980s, with a number of reports detailing both successful trials and also a number of problems with such trials. A 1988 study showed that sand whiting were more likely to grow in captivity than other whiting species, but the mortality rate of over 50% was unacceptable for use in an economic setting. A number of problems with diseases such as ulcerative dermatitis[34] and the failure of the swim-bladder to inflate properly were also documented,[35] however many of these initial problems have been overcome, and some facilities are breeding around 2000 larvae with a 95% survival rate.[36] Some of these fingerlings are used to restock depleted estuaries, while others form the basis of commercial fish crops.[37]

References

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2007). "Sillago ciliata" in FishBase. Aug 2007 version.
  2. ^ a b c d McKay, R.J. (1985), "A revision of the fishes of the family Sillaginidae", Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 23: 1–73
  3. ^ a b c d McKay, R.J. (1992), FAO Species Catalogue: Vol. 14. Sillaginid Fishes Of The World, Rome: Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations, pp. 19–20, ISBN 92-5-103123-1, http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/t0538e/t0538e00.htm
  4. ^ Kuiter, R.H. (1993), Coastal fishes of south-eastern Australia, U.S.A: University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 1-86333-067-4
  5. ^ a b Gray, C.A.; McElligott, D.J.; Chick, R.C. (1996), "Intra- and Inter-estuary Differences in Assemblages of Fishes Associated with Shallow Seagrass and Bare Sand", Marine and Freshwater Research 47 (5): 723–735, doi:10.1071/MF9960723, http://www.publish.csiro.au/?paper=MF9960723
  6. ^ Sheaves, M. (2006), "Scale-dependent variation in composition of fish fauna among sandy tropical estuarine embayments", Marine Ecology Progress Series 310: 173–184, doi:10.3354/meps310173, http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v310/p173-184/
  7. ^ Griffiths, R.J.; West, R. J. (1999), "Preliminary assessment of shallow water fish in three small intermittently open estuaries in southeastern Australia", Fisheries Management and Ecology 6 (4): 311–321, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2400.1999.tb00082.x, http://md1.csa.com/partners/viewrecord.php?requester=gs&collection=ENV&recid=4597374&q=Preliminary+assessment+of+shallow+water+fish+in+three+small+intermittently+open+estuaries+in+southeastern+Australia&uid=1191063&setcookie=yes
  8. ^ Weng, H.T. (1986), "Spatial and temporal distribution of whiting Sillaginidae in Moreton Bay, Queensland Australia", Journal of Fish Biology 29 (6): 755–764, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1986.tb04991.x, http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1986.tb04991.x
  9. ^ a b Miller, S.J.; Skilleter, G.A (2006), "Temporal variation in habitat use by nekton in a subtropical estuarine system", Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 337: 82–95, doi:10.1016/j.jembe.2006.06.010, 0022-0981, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T8F-4K7N6K3-1&_user=10&_coverDate=09%2F19%2F2006&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=990d45b54d5568202879a97f785459e3
  10. ^ a b Hutchins, B.; Swainston, R. (1986), Sea Fishes of Southern Australia. Complete Field Guide for Anglers and Divers, Melbourne: Swainston Publishing, pp. 187, ISBN 1-875169-78-4
  11. ^ a b Weng, H.T. (1983), "Identification, habitats and seasonal occurrence of juvenile whiting (Sillaginidae) in Moreton Bay, Queensland", Journal of Fish Biology 23 (2): 195–200, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1983.tb02894.x, http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1983.tb02894.x
  12. ^ a b Hyndes, G.A.; Platell, M.E.; Potter, I.C. (1997), "Relationships between diet and body size, mouth morphology, habitat and movements of six Sillaginid species in coastal waters: implications for resource partitioning", Marine Biology 128 (4): 585–598, doi:10.1007/s002270050125, http://www.springerlink.com/content/0tvu441v8xx2tqqd/
  13. ^ Hadwen, W.L.; Russell, G.L.; Arthington, A.H. (1985), "The food, feeding habits and feeding structures of the whiting species Sillago sihama (ForsskaÊ l) and Sillago analis Whitley from Townsville, North Queensland, Australia.", Journal of Fish Biology 26 (4): 411–427, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1985.tb04281.x, http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1985.tb04281.x
  14. ^ Gunn, J.S.; Milward, N.E.; Arthington, Angela H. (2007), "Gut content- and stable isotope-derived diets of four commercially and recreationally important fish species in two intermittently open estuaries", Marine and Freshwater Research 58 (4): 363–375, doi:10.1071/MF06157, http://www.publish.csiro.au/paper/MF06157.htm
  15. ^ a b Burchmore, J.J.; Pollard, D.A.; Middleton, M.J.; Bell, J.D.; Pease, BC (1988), "Biology of Four Species of Whiting (Pisces : Sillaginidae) in Botany Bay, New South Wales", Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res 39 (6): 709–727, doi:10.1071/MF9880709, http://md1.csa.com/partners/viewrecord.php?requester=gs&collection=ENV&recid=1967312&q=Biology+of+Four+Species+of+Whiting+%28Pisces+%3A+Sillaginidae%29+in+Botany+Bay%2C+New+South+Wales&uid=1191063&setcookie=yes
  16. ^ Morton, R.M. (1985), "The reproductive biology of summer whiting, Sillago ciliata C. and V., in northern Moreton Bay, Queensland", Australian Zoology 21: 491–502, http://md1.csa.com/partners/viewrecord.php?requester=gs&collection=ENV&recid=1312646&q=The+reproductive+biology+of+summer+whiting%2C+Sillago+ciliata+C.+and+V.%2C+in+northern+Moreton+Bay%2C+Queensland&uid=1191063&setcookie=yes
  17. ^ Smith, K.A.; Sinerchia, M. (2004), "Timing of recruitment events, residence periods and post-settlement growth of juvenile fish in a seagrass nursery area, south-eastern Australia", Environmental Biology of Fishes 71: 73–84, doi:10.1023/B:EBFI.0000043154.96933.de, http://www.springerlink.com/content/u573793273t3gv4l/
  18. ^ Kailola, P.J.; Williams, M.J.; Stewart, R.E.; et al. (1993), "Australian fisheries resources", Bureau of Resource Sciences (Canberra, A.C.T.: Bureau of Resource Sciences, Dept. of Primary Industries and Energy), ISBN 0-642-18876-9
  19. ^ a b Roughley, T.C.; Ginsborg, BL (1951), "The Fish and Fisheries of Australia", Nature (Sydney: Angus and Robertson) 170 (4314): 36, Bibcode 1952Natur.170..593S, doi:10.1038/170593a0, PMID 14957011
  20. ^ West, R.J.; King, R.J. (1996), "Marine, Brackish, and Freshwater Fish Communities in the Vegetated and Bare Shallows of an Australian Coastal River", Estuaries (Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation) 19 (1): 31–41, doi:10.2307/1352649, JSTOR 1352649
  21. ^ a b Williams, L.E. (2002), Queensland's Fisheries Resources: Current conditions and recent trends 1988-2000, Brisbane: Department of Primary Industries Queensland, pp. 174–178, http://www2.dpi.qld.gov.au/fishweb/9014.html
  22. ^ Wilkinson, J. (2004), NSW Fishing Industry: Changes and Challenges in the Twenty-First Century, Sydney: NSW Parliamentary Library Research Service, pp. 174–178, ISBN 0-7313-1768-8, http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/publications.nsf/0/07532F82AC6487FFCA256F16001BBE85
  23. ^ West, R.J.; Gordon, G.N.G. (1994), "Commercial and Recreational Harvest of Fish from two Australian Coastal Rivers", Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res 45 (7): 1259–79, doi:10.1071/MF9941259, http://www.publish.csiro.au/?paper=MF9941259
  24. ^ Butcher, A.; Mayer, D.; Smallwood, D.; Johnston, M. (1997), "A comparison of the relative efficiency of ring, fyke, fence nets and beam trawling for estimating key estuarine fishery populations", Fisheries Research 32: 51–60, doi:10.1016/j.fishres.2005.01.014, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T6N-4FJGW29-2&_user=10&_coverDate=07%2F31%2F2005&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=a326e117cb4e9e61a8b8bc9ff9484c99
  25. ^ Kennelly, S.J.; Gray,, S.A. (2000), "Reducing the mortality of discarded undersize sand whiting Sillago ciliata in an estuarine seine fishery", Marine and Freshwater Research 51 (8): 749–53, doi:10.1071/MF00014, http://www.publish.csiro.au/paper/MF00014.htm
  26. ^ Gray, C.A.; Kennelly, S.J.; Hodgson, K.E.; Ashby, C.J.T. (2001), "Retained and discarded catches from commercial beach-seining in Botany Bay, Australia", Fisheries Research 50 (3): 205–219, doi:10.1016/S0165-7836(00)00228-9, http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/els/01657836/2001/00000050/00000003/art00228
  27. ^ Broadhurst, M.K.; Kennelly,, S.J.; Barker, D.T. (1997), "Simulated escape of juvenile sand whiting ( Sillago ciliata, Cuvier) through square-meshes: Effects on scale-loss and survival", Fisheries Research 32: 51–60, doi:10.1016/S0165-7836(97)00037-4, http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/els/01657836/1997/00000032/00000001/art00037
  28. ^ Sydney Fish Market (PDF), Sand Whiting, archived from the original on October 8, 2006, http://web.archive.org/web/20061008073056/http://www.sydneyfishmarket.com.au/sfm/uploadedFiles/docs/WHITING_SAND.pdf, retrieved 2007-08-17
  29. ^ Starling, S. (1988), The Australian Fishing Book, Hong Kong: Bacragas Pty. Ltd., pp. 490, ISBN 0-7301-0141-X
  30. ^ Horrobin, P. (1997), Guide to Favourite Australian Fish, Singapore: Universal Magazines, pp. 102–103
  31. ^ New South Wales Department of Primary Industries (PDF), Bag and Size Limits - Saltwater, http://www2.dpi.qld.gov.au/extra/pdf/fishweb/InshoreBGBagsize.pdf, retrieved 2007-08-17
  32. ^ Queensland Government Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (PDF), Recreational fishing size and bag limits for tidal waters in Queensland - July 2010, http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/documents/Fisheries_RecreationalFishing/Size-and_take-tidal.pdf, retrieved 2010-09-16
  33. ^ Downie, David, Live-baiting Brisbane Estuaries, http://www.fishing-boating.com/articles/nuggetlivebaiting.htm, retrieved 2007-08-17
  34. ^ Gill, P.A.; Callinan, R.B. (1997), "Ulcerative dermatitis associated with Uronema sp infection of farmed sand whiting Sillago ciliata", Australian Veterinary Journal 75 (5): 357, doi:10.1111/j.1751-0813.1997.tb15714.x, PMID 9196825, http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=10585801
  35. ^ Battaglene, S.C.; McBride, S.; Talbot, R.C. (1994), "Swim bladder inflation in larvae of cultured sand whiting, Sillago ciliata Cuvier (Sillaginidae)", Aquaculture 128: 177–192, doi:10.1016/0044-8486(94)90112-0, http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=3420019
  36. ^ Burke, Michael (PDF), Marine fingerling production at the Bribie Island Aquaculture Research Centre intensive green-water culture: An historical perspective, http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/research/hatchery-feeds/pdf/chapter04.pdf
  37. ^ AquaBlue Seafoods, Marine Fish Hatchery: General Information, http://www.aquablueseafoods.com.au/marine.shtml, retrieved 2007-08-17
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!