Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits coral reefs. Juveniles found on Thalassia beds (Ref. 13628). Feeds on benthic plants and small organisms in the sand (Ref. 5521). Forms large spawning aggregations (Ref. 9710).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Western Atlantic: Maryland in the USA, Bermuda and Bahamas to Río de Janeiro, Brazil, including the West Indies; absent in the northern Gulf of Mexico
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range Description

This species is found from Bermuda and Maryland (USA) to Venezuela.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Western Atlantic: Maryland in the USA, Bermuda and Bahamas to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Ref. 13628), including the West Indies (Ref. 3802); absent in the northern Gulf of Mexico.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10; Analspines: 2; Analsoft rays: 9
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Maximum size: 1200 mm TL
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Max. size

120 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251))
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Adults uniformly blue, with yellow area on top of head that disappears in larger fish. Large fish develop prominent bulging snout and extended upper and lower caudal fin lobes. No other species has this uniform blue color in adults. (Ref. 26938).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

benthic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is reef associated from 3-40 m (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009). It feeds on algae and small benthic invertebrates in the sand. It sometimes forms large spawning aggregations (Lieske and Myers 1994). Juveniles are found on seagrass beds and mangroves. It is also found in shallow sand and rubble flats.

Systems
  • Marine
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 3 - 25 m (Ref. 9710)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 35 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 24 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1.5 - 20
  Temperature range (°C): 26.534 - 27.783
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.125 - 1.684
  Salinity (PPS): 35.893 - 36.487
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.502 - 4.628
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.058 - 0.152
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.599 - 3.566

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1.5 - 20

Temperature range (°C): 26.534 - 27.783

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.125 - 1.684

Salinity (PPS): 35.893 - 36.487

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.502 - 4.628

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.058 - 0.152

Silicate (umol/l): 1.599 - 3.566
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth: 3 - 25m.
From 3 to 25 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Inhabits coral reefs. Feeds on benthic plants and small organisms in the sand (Ref. 5521). Forms large spawning aggregations (Ref. 9710).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Cleaned by hogfish (Bodianus rufus) and wrasse (Thalassoma trifasciatum) as observed on the coral reefs in Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles (Ref. 36810).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Rocha, L.A., Choat, J.H., Clements, K.D., Russell, B., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P.

Reviewer/s
McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is the second largest parrotfish in the Caribbean. Even though large specimens are targeted by fishermen, there seems to be no evidence of
apparent global decline in population sizes (Friedlander and Beets 2008).There are however, severe population declines in reefs close to densely populated areas around Haiti and Jamaica (Hawkins and Roberts 2004). However, it is present within several conservation areas throughout the Caribbean. Fisheries for all parrotfishes is permanently closed in Bermuda. It is protected and relatively abundant in parts of its range (i.e., Bonaire). It is therefore listed as Least Concern. Further research is needed to evaluate its population status.

History
  • 2010
    Least Concern
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
Currently population size/trends have not been assessed. This species is not present in FAO global production estimates. This species is naturally uncommon (L. Rocha pers comm. 2009).

Population Trend
Unknown
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
Even though fishery landings of these and other medium to large-sized parrotfish species in the Caribbean have been steadily increasing, there is no apparent global decline in population sizes (Friedlander and Beets 2008). There are however, severe population declines in reefs close to densely populated areas around Haiti and Jamaica (Hawkins and Roberts 2004).

Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Least Concern (LC)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is present within several conservation areas throughout the Caribbean. Fisheries for all parrotfishes is permanently closed in Bermuda. It is protected and relatively abundant in Bonaire (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial; price category: high; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Blue parrotfish

This article is about the fish in the Scarus genus. For the fish in the Sparisoma genus, see Sparisoma chrysopterum.

The blue parrotfish (Scarus coeruleus) is a member of the parrotfish genus Scarus. It is found on coral reefs in shallow water in the tropical and subtropical parts of the western Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

Description[edit]

They are uniformly blue with a yellow spot on their heads that fades as they age. They average 30–75 cm in length with a maximum length of 1.2 m. They develop a large "beak" like other parrotfish that is used for scraping algae and small organisms from rocks. They have pharyngeal teeth that grind ingested rocks into sand. No other species has this uniform blue color as adults.

Reproduction[edit]

In summer, blue parrotfish gather in spawning groups. Fertilization takes place and the females deposit their eggs into the water column after which they sink to the seabed. The eggs hatch after about twenty-five hours.[3]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Blue parrotfish are found on coral reefs at depths of 3–25 m (9–82 ft) in the western Atlantic from Maryland in the United States to Bermuda, the Bahamas, and south to Brazil. They are also found throughout the West Indies but are absent from the northern part of the Gulf of Mexico. Juveniles are found in beds of turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum).[2]

Diet[edit]

Their diet consists of small organisms found in the sand and algae that they scrape off rocks. They spend 80% of their time searching for food.

Status[edit]

The blue parrotfish has a wide range and is abundant in much of that range, some of which is in marine conservation areas. Although larger individuals are targeted by fishermen, the population of this fish seems to be stable overall. For these reasons, the IUCN has listed this fish as being of "Least Concern".[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Rocha, L.A., Choat, J.H., Clements, K.D., Russell, B., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P. 2012. Scarus coeruleus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 9 January 2013.
  2. ^ a b "Blue parrotfish". FishBase.org. Retrieved 4 February 2012. 
  3. ^ "Blue Parrotfishes, Scarus coeruleus". MarineBio Conservation Organisation. Retrieved 2013-12-27. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!