Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: burrfish (English), pez erizo (Espanol)
 
Cyclichthys spilostylus (Leis & Randall 1982)


Yellow-spotted burrfish,     Spotbase burrfish


Body slender, can be inflated; head wide and blunt; eyes large; nasal organ a short tube with 2 openings; teeth fused into a strong, parrot-like beak that lacks a front groove, large, opens widely at front; gill opening a vertical slit before pectoral base; pectorals large; fins without spines; no pelvic fins; dorsal fin high and round, 12-13 rays; anal 10-12 rays; pectoral angular, 20-22 rays; body and head covered with numerous short (< eye), fixed, 3-4 rooted spines that are triangular and flattened in cross-section, and, in some cases reduced to plates under skin, no spines on tail base; ~ 15 spines between snout and dorsal fin; pelagic juveniles with fleshy tentacle at base of each spine; tail fin with 9 rays.



Dark brown to grey-brown above, shading to white below; base of each spine on back in white spot, on sides in a yellow spot, on belly in a black spot, spots ~ pupil size; spines yellow; fins dusky, without spots; pelagic juveniles- eye-size black spots scattered over body.

        Size 41 cm.

Habitat: reefs, algal beds, sand; possibly nocturnal.

        
        Depth 5-90 m.

        Indo-Pacific; vagrant in the Galapagos.
   
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Biology

Found in coastal waters in the vicinity of reefs (Ref. 9680). Lives in seagrass habitats and coastal slopes with sponges. Active during the night (Ref. 48637). Nocturnal and solitary (Ref. 9680), usually found under ledges during the day (Ref. 9710). Juveniles pelagic (Ref. 30573). Feeds on hard-shelled invertebrates (Ref. 9680). Not usually marketed (Ref. 9680).
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Distribution

Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, TEP non-endemic, Indo-Pacific only (Indian + Pacific Oceans), "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific), West + East Pacific (but not Central)

Regional Endemism: All species, Eastern Pacific non-endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic, Island (s), Island (s) only

Residency: Vagrant

Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
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Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea to South Africa and east to southern Japan, the Philippines, Australia and New Caledonia (Ref. 9680). Eastern Pacific: Galapagos Islands (Ref. 5227). Mediterranean: Israel (Ref. 43448).
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa and Réunion (Mascarenes) east to Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to northern Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia; Eastern Pacific (Galápagos Islands); Mediterranean Sea immigrant.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 5 (S) - 90 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 11 - 13; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 10 - 12
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Size

Length max (cm): 41.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 340 mm NG
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Max. size

34.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710))
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Diagnostic Description

Fins unspotted; adults with black spots on sides and belly, the spots associated with spine bases; no spines on caudal peduncle (Ref. 4423).
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Type Information

Paratype for Cyclichthys spilostylus
Catalog Number: USNM 216146
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): V. Springer, G. Raz & L. Hughes-Gannes
Year Collected: 1969
Locality: Israel (sic), Gulf of Aqaba, Bay at El Himeira., Egypt, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, Indian
Depth (m): 9 to 12
  • Paratype: Leis, J. M. & Randall, J. E. 1981. Records of the Australian Museum. 34 (3): 364.
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Paratype for Cyclichthys spilostylus
Catalog Number: USNM 191665
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): E. Clark
Year Collected: 1960
Locality: Red Sea, Indian
  • Paratype: Leis, J. M. & Randall, J. E. 1981. Records of the Australian Museum. 34 (3): 364.
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 3 - 90 m (Ref. 30573)
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Depth range based on 24 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 21 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 45 - 165.5
  Temperature range (°C): 18.507 - 28.199
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.428 - 10.770
  Salinity (PPS): 34.451 - 35.439
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.016 - 4.730
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.214 - 0.979
  Silicate (umol/l): 4.097 - 15.661

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 45 - 165.5

Temperature range (°C): 18.507 - 28.199

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.428 - 10.770

Salinity (PPS): 34.451 - 35.439

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.016 - 4.730

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.214 - 0.979

Silicate (umol/l): 4.097 - 15.661
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 3 - 90m.
From 3 to 90 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Rocks, Reef and soft bottom, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom), Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Sand & gravel

FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
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Trophic Strategy

Found in coastal waters in the vicinity of reefs. Nocturnal and solitary, usually found under ledges during the day. Juveniles pelagic . Feeds on hard-shelled invertebrates.
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves, sea-stars/cucumbers/urchins
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cyclichthys spilostylus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cyclichthys spilostylus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest
  • Leis, J.M. 2001 Diodontidae. Porcupine fishes (burrfishes). p. 3958-3965. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9680)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9680&speccode=6552 External link.
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Wikipedia

Spotbase burrfish

Cyclichthys spilostylus B.jpg
Cyclichthys spilostylus A.jpg
Cyclichthys spilostylus C.jpg

Also known as the yellowspotted burrfish.

Contents

Range

Red Sea to South Africa and east to southern Japan, the Philippines, Australia and New Caledonia. Also found around the Galapagos Islands and in the Mediterranean.[1]

Description

Up to 34cm long with short, rigid spines over the body. The colouration of the body is dusky above and light below, the spines arising from contrasting spots (lighter above and darker below).

Diet

Feeds on hard-shelled invertebrates; molluscs, crustaceans and sea urchins.[2]

Habitat

Found in coastal waters near and around reefs at depths of 3m – 90m. Lives in seagrass habitats and coastal slopes with sponges. It is usually found under rock or coral ledges during the day and is active during the night, generally being solitary in nature. Juveniles are pelagic.

Hazards

May be hazardous to humans in three ways:

References

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2007). "Cyclichthys spilostylus" in FishBase. 6 2007 version.
  2. ^ Lieske, E. and Myers, R.F. (2004) Coral reef guide; Red Sea London, HarperCollins ISBN 0-00-715986-2
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