Overview

Comprehensive Description

Labrus merula ZBK Linnaeus, 1758

?: 18800-568 (1 spc.) .

  • Nurettin Meriç, Lütfiye Eryilmaz, Müfit Özulug (2007): A catalogue of the fishes held in the Istanbul University, Science Faculty, Hydrobiology Museum. Zootaxa 1472, 29-54: 48-48, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:428F3980-C1B8-45FF-812E-0F4847AF6786
Public Domain

MagnoliaPress via Plazi

Source: Plazi.org

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Biology

Adults are found around rocks and seaweeds. Sometime schooling, more solitary when older. Feed on sea urchins, ophiuroids, mollusks, crabs and worms. They reach maturity when 2 years old (15-20 cm). Spawn during February to May in western Mediterranean (Ref. 4742). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Males build dish shaped nests and guard the eggs (Ref. 205).
  • Bauchot, M.-L. 1987 Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3397)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=3397&speccode=2504 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range Description

In the Eastern Atlantic, this species is present from Portugal to Morocco, including the Azores Islands (P. Afonso pers. comm. 2008).

In the Mediterranean Sea, this species is present throughout the entire area except for the eastern Levantine Sea. It is not present in the Black Sea (Golani et al. 2006).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Eastern Atlantic: Portugal to Morocco and Azores. Also in the Mediterranean.
  • Bauchot, M.-L. 1987 Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3397)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=3397&speccode=2504 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Portugal to northern Morocco and the Azores.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 450 mm SL
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Max. size

45.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 4742)); max. reported age: 17 years (Ref. 4742)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found around rocks, amongst seaweeds and in seagrass beds. It exhibits some schooling but are more solitary when older. It feeds on sea urchins, ophiuroids, mollusks, crabs and worms.

Maturity occurs after two years at lengths between 15 and 20 cm. This species spawns from February to May in the western Mediterranean Sea (Quignard and Pras 1986). Demersal eggs are laid amongst seagrasses and are protected by the males (Golani et al. 2006).

Systems
  • Marine
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Environment

reef-associated; marine
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 1
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Found around rocks and seaweeds. Sometimes schooling, more solitary when older. Feeds on sea urchins, ophiuroids, molluscs, crabs and worms. Mature when 2 years old (15-20 cm). Spawns during February to May in western Mediterranean..
  • Bauchot, M.-L. 1987 Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3397)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=3397&speccode=2504 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Males build dish shaped nests and guard the eggs (Ref. 205).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Labrus merula

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

AAAGATATTGGCACCCTTTATCTCGTATTTGGCGCTTGAGCCGGAATGGTAGGCACTGCTTTA---AGTTTGCTCATCCGAGCAGAACTTAGCCAACCAGGGGCCCTCCTCGGAGAT---GACCAAATTTATAACGTAATCGTCACGGCACATGCGTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTATGATCGGGGGCTTCGGGAACTGACTCATCCCCCTAATG---ATTGGGGCTCCCGATATGGCTTTCCCTCGAATAAACAACATGAGCTTCTGACTCCTCCCTCCCTCCTTCCTCCTCCTCCTCGCCTCTTCTGGGGTAGAAGCCGGAGCGGGCACTGGATGAACAGTATACCCCCCTCTAGCAGGAAACCTGGCCCACGCGGGAGCATCCGTTGATCTC---ACTATCTTTTCCCTTCACCTAGCAGGTATCTCTTCAATTTTAGGCGCTATTAATTTTATTACAACCATTATTAACATGAAACCCCCTGCCATCTCACAATATCAGACCCCTCTATTTGTATGATCCGTGCTGATCACCGCCGTCCTGCTCCTCCTCTCACTTCCTGTTCTTGCAGCT---GGTATCACGATGCTCCTCACAGATCGCAACCTTAACACCACCTTCTTTGACCCTGCTGGAGGCGGAGATCCTATTCTTTACCAACACCTGTTCTGATTTTTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Labrus merula

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Pollard, D.

Reviewer/s
Sadovy, Y. & Carpenter, K.E.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread and common in the Mediterranean. There may be some threats from habitat degradation (i.e. seagrass bed destruction), however, the population has not shown any serious signs of decline. Therefore, this species is listed as Least Concern.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
This species is relatively widespread and common throughout most of the Mediterranean Sea (D. Pollard pers. comm. 2008).

Population Trend
Stable
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
Threats to this species include habitat degradation, specifically the reduction of Posidonia seagrass beds.
Larger individuals may be caught in the artisanal fisheries and used as food locally in the Mediterranean region (D. Pollard pers. comm. 2008).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Least Concern (LC)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no specific conservation measures in place for this species. Its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Brown wrasse

The brown wrasse, Labrus merula, is a species of wrasse native to the Eastern Atlantic from Portugal to Morocco, including the Azores, as well as in the Mediterranean Sea. It can be found on reefs amongst the seaweed and rocks. This species can reach 45 cm (18 in) in standard length, though most do not exceed 40 cm (16 in). It is important to local populations as a food fish and can also be found in the aquarium trade.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pollard, D. 2010. Labrus merula. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 10 November 2013.
  2. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Labrus merula" in FishBase. August 2013 version.
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!