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BiologyInhabit sand and gravel runs, sandy and muddy pools and backwaters, of small to large rivers; less often in lakes and impoundments (Ref. 10294, 11003). Larvae feed on cladocera, copepods, and midge larvae, while juveniles consume fishes (Ref. 10294). Spawn between March and June (Ref. 10999) in pairs or small aggregations (Ref. 11003).