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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found in coral reefs and estuarine areas, on sand and mud bottoms (Ref. 12951, 11230). Feeds on small fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 9840). Ovoviviparous with up to 10 in a litter (Ref. 12951). Caught occasionally by bottom trawl fisheries operating inshore. Utilized for its meat but of limited value due to its small size (Ref.58048). Served in 'miso' soup, hard boiled with seasonings, or for 'kamaboko' material (Ref. 637).
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Distribution

Range Description

Probable Northwest Pacific endemic. In Japan, commonly distributed in shallow coastal waters and bays from Hokkaido to Okinawa (Taniuchi and Shimizu 1993).
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Western Pacific: southern Japan to Thailand. Also known from Fiji and Tuvalu (Ref. 12596).
  • Last, P.R. and L.J.V. Compagno 1999 Dasyatididae. Stingrays. p. 1479-1505. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9840)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9840&speccode=15387 External link.
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Western Pacific.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 2000 mm WD
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Max. size

200 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 637)); max. published weight: 10.7 kg (Ref. 40637)
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Diagnostic Description

Disc rhomboid, anterior margin straight, posterior margin convex. Snout triangular and slightly produced. dorsal keel present on tail. Adults with small spines on disc and posterior part of tail. Brown dorsally and some with orangish pectoral fin margins, in front of eyes, behind spiracles, on the sides of the tail just anterior to the sting. Ventrum orangish red.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Dasyatis akajei plays an important role as an apex predator in the demersal food network of coastal areas (Taniuchi and Shimizu 1993). However, very little is known of its life-history traits. It is found in coastal areas and on the continental shelf.

Males attain maturity at ~35 cm DW and almost all the males become mature at >40 cm DW. Females attain first maturity between 50 and 55 cm DW and most females >60 cm DW may be mature (Taniuchi and Shimizu 1993).

D. akajei feeds predominantly on crustaceans and osteichthyes. Annelida was also reported in their stomachs whilst Bivalvia and Cephalopoda were seldom found (Taniuchi and Shimizu 1993).

Dasyatidae are mostly demersal in inshore waters, although several species range offshore and a few large species occur along the upper continental slopes as deep as 480 m. Several species are euryhaline while some others are confined to freshwater. All are aplacental viviparous. Litter varies between two to six young with gestation periods, which may take as long as 12 months (Last and Compagno 1999). Dasyatis akajei appears to have a lower fecundity with gravid females bearing one pup/litter (H. Ishihara, unpublished data).

Life history parameters
Age at maturity (years): Unknown.
Size at maturity (disc width): 50?55 cm DW (Taniuchi and Shimizu 1993) (female); 35?40 cm DW (Taniuchi and Shimizu 1993) (male).
Longevity (years): Unknown.
Maximum size (disc width): At least 66 cm DW (Last and Compagno 1999).
Size at birth (cm): Unknown.
Average reproductive age (years): Unknown.
Gestation time (months): Unknown.
Reproductive periodicity: Unknown.
Average annual fecundity or litter size: 1 pup/litter (H. Ishihara, unpublished data).
Annual rate of population increase: Unknown.
Natural mortality: Unknown.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); brackish; marine; depth range 10 - ? m (Ref. 12951)
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Depth range based on 2 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 40 - 100

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 40 - 100
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits sandy areas in coastal waters (Ref. 9137); also coral reefs (Ref. 58534).
  • Last, P.R. and L.J.V. Compagno 1999 Dasyatididae. Stingrays. p. 1479-1505. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9840)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9840&speccode=15387 External link.
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Dasyatis akajei

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACCCTTTATTTAATCTTTGGTGCATGGGCGGGGATAGTGGGTACTGGTCTC---AGTCTGTTAATCCGGACAGAGTTAAGCCAACCAGGCGCATTATTGGGTGAT---GACCAAATCTATAATGTAATTGTTACCGCCCACGCCTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTCATGGTAATACCAATTATAATCGGAGGATTCGGTAATTGACTAGTTCCCTTAATA---ATTGGTGCCCCAGACATGGCCTTTCCACGACTAAATAATATGAGTTTTTGACTCCTTCCCCCATCTTTCCTCCTACTCCTAGCCTCAGCGGGGGTAGAAGCCGGGGCAGGTACAGGATGAACCGTTTATCCCCCATTAGCCGGTAATCTTGCACATGCTGGGGCTTCCGTAGATCTT---GCTATCTTTTCTCTCCATTTAGCCGGTATTTCCTCTATCCTGGCATCCATTAACTTTATCACAACAATTATTAATATAAAACCCCCTGCAATCTCCCAATATCAGACACCTCTTTTTGTTTGATCTATTCTCATTACAACTGTCCTCCTTTTACTATCACTCCCAGTTCTAGCAGCG---GGCATTACTATGCTTCTCACAGATCGAAATCTCAACACAACTTTCTTTGACCCAGCAGGTGGAGGAGACCCTATTCTCTATCAACATCTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Dasyatis akajei

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2006

Assessor/s
Huveneers, C. & Ishihara, H.

Reviewer/s
Kyne, P.M. & Fowler, S.L. (Shark Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
A probably Northwest Pacific endemic known from Japan, Taiwan and China (other forms from the Western Central Pacific need to be critically compared). Dasyatis akajei plays an important role as an apex predator in the demersal food network of coastal regions across its range. However, very little is known of its life-history traits. The species is subject to high fishing effort and caught in commercial quantities in the coastal waters of Japan and even in brackish waters. It is taken as bycatch in the bottom trawl fishery, gillnet, set net and hook and line fishery targeting demersal bottom fishes such as flounders. This bycatch is utilized and landings are reported to be declining. Fecundity is very low with one pup per litter reported. Due to the current high level of bycatch and strong fishing pressure in its area of occurrence, which will have depleted the population, this species should be classified as Near Threatened. Data need to be collected in order to accurately assess the population status, which may show that the species falls into a higher threat category.
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Population

Population
Declines have reported to have occurred where the species is fished.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Dasyatis akajei is caught in commercial quantities in coastal and even brackish waters. It is taken as bycatch in the bottom trawl fishery, gillnet, set net and hook and line fishery targeting demersal bottom fishes such as flounders, and this bycatch is utilized. Landings are reported to be declining. Population is therefore strongly affected by present level of fishing.
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Near Threatened (NT)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Data need to be collected in order to accurately assess the population status and to document catch levels.

The development and implementation of management plans (national and/or regional e.g., under the FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks: IPOA?Sharks) are required to facilitate the conservation and sustainable management of all chondrichthyan species in the region. See Anon. (2004) for an update of progress made by nations in the range of D. akajei.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
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Wikipedia

Red stingray

The red stingray (Dasyatis akajei) is a species of stingray in the family Dasyatidae, found in the northwestern Pacific Ocean off Japan, Korea, and China, and possibly elsewhere. It primarily inhabits shallow, sandy habitats close to shore, and has been known to enter brackish water. The red stingray has a diamond-shaped pectoral fin disc and gains its common name from its bright orange-red underside; there may also be patches of orange at various spots on its upper surface. Most individuals are no more than 1 m (3.3 ft) long.

Feeding mainly on crustaceans and bony fishes, the red stingray plays a key ecological role as an apex predator in its environment. Reproduction is aplacental viviparous, with females giving birth to 1 or up to 10 pups at a time. The red stingray is valued as food in Japan; large numbers are caught as bycatch and brought to market, which has seemingly led to a population decline in this unprolific species. As a result, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has assessed it as Near Threatened.

Taxonomy[edit]

The original description of the red stingray was published by Johannes Müller and Friedrich Henle in their 1841 Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen under the name Trygon akajei, based on an earlier account of "Pastinaca akajei" by Heinrich Bürger. Subsequent authors have placed the genus Trygon in synonymy with Dasyatis. A lectotype for this species was designated by Marinus Boeseman in 1947.[2] Other common names for the red stingray include brown stingray, estuary stingaree, Japanese red stingray, Japanese stingray, red skate, whip ray, whip stingray, and yellow stingray.[3]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The red stingray may be endemic to the northwestern Pacific Ocean;[1] it is found throughout Japanese coastal waters from Hokkaidō to Okinawa, and also occurs off Korea, mainland China and Taiwan.[4][5] This species has been reported from as far as Thailand, the Philippines, Fiji, and Tuvalu. However, whether these records truly represent D. akajei has yet to be determined.[1][3] The red stingray is commonly encountered in sandy areas close to shore and in bays at a depth of 10 m (33 ft) or more,[3][5] but also inhabits muddy flats, coral reefs, and estuaries.[6]

Description[edit]

The red stingray has orange coloration on its dorsal and ventral surfaces.

The red stingray can grow to 2 m (6.6 ft) long and 0.66 m (2.2 ft) across, though most do not exceed 1 m (3.3 ft) in length. The maximum recorded weight is 10.7 kg (24 lb).[1][3] It has a diamond-shaped pectoral fin disc wider than long, with nearly straight front margins converging to a triangular snout. The small eyes are slightly elevated, and followed by spiracles that are almost twice as large. There is a thick flap of skin between the large nares.[7] The teeth are arranged with a quincunx pattern into a pavement-like surface. Females and juveniles have blunt teeth, while adult males have pointed, recurved teeth.[5] There is a row of 3 papillae across the floor of the mouth, sometimes with up to 2 pairs of accessory papillae alongside.[4]

The tail is whip-like and measures 1–1.5 times as long as the disc is wide. A long, serrated spine originates in the first third of the tail, and is followed by a low dorsal keel and a ventral fin fold. Young rays have smooth skin, while adults have a patch of small dermal denticles between and behind the eyes, and a row of thorns along the midline of the back. There are 1–6 tubercles in front of the tail spine, and numerous small denticles behind. This species is plain brown above, often with yellow or orange coloring before the eyes, behind the spiracles, around the disc margin, and laterally on the tail in front of the spine. The tail darkens to nearly black towards the tip and on the ventral fin fold. The underside is white with bright orange-red patches.[4][7] The Mekong freshwater stingray (D. laosensis) is also characterized by orange ventral coloration and has some similar meristic counts to this species, but differs in disc shape, denticle coverage, and dorsal coloration.[8]

Biology and ecology[edit]

As an apex predator in nearshore demersal food webs, the red stingray plays a significant ecological role. Crustaceans are the most important component of its diet, followed by small bony fishes and then annelid worms, while molluscs are seldom consumed. In Tokyo Bay, important crustacean prey species are Crangon affinis for males, Oratosquilla ijimai for females, and Anisomysis ijimai for juveniles; the most important fish prey species is Sardinops melanostictus, followed by Conger myriaster.[5] Like other stingrays, the red stingray is aplacental viviparous.[3] During courtship, the male follows the female and bites at her pectoral fin disc, using his pointed teeth to gain a grip for copulation.[5] The litter size has been variously reported as only 1 or up to 10.[1][6] Males mature sexually at a disc width of 35–40 cm (14–16 in), and females at a disc width of 50–55 cm (20–22 in).[5]

Known parasites of the red stingray include the tapeworms Acanthobothrium macrocephalum,[9] Rhodobothrium pulvinatum,[10] and Tetragonocephalum akajeinensis,[11] the monogeneans Dendromonocotyle akajeii and Heterocotyle chinensis,[12][13] the leech Pterobdella amara,[14] the nematodes Porrocaecum laymani and Terranova amoyensis,[15][16] the copepod Trebius akajeii,[17] and the pranzia larvae of the isopod Gnathia capillata.[18]

Human interactions[edit]

The venomous tail spine of the red stingray is potentially injurious to humans.[3] The Ainu once used the dried tail spine, with the toxic sheath intact, as a weapon.[19] This species is an incidental catch of commercial fisheries targeting flounder and other bottom-dwelling fishes, using bottom trawls, gillnets, set nets, and line gear.[1] It is valued as food in Japan, especially in the Tokyo Bay area where it is consumed in autumn and winter; it may be prepared hard boiled, with miso soup, or as kamaboko.[3][5] However, the small size of the red stingray limits its economic importance.[3] Annual catches reported by Japanese fisheries have steadily declined from 20,000 tons in 1950 to varying between 3,959 and 5,388 tons from 1997 to 2004.[20][21] Such apparent depletion, coupled with continuing heavy fishing pressure and a slow reproductive rate, have led the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) to assess this species as Near Threatened.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Huveneers, C. and H. Ishihara (2006). Dasyatis akajei. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved December 4, 2009.
  2. ^ Catalog of Fishes (Online Version). California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved on December 4, 2009.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2009). "Dasyatis akajei" in FishBase. December 2009 version.
  4. ^ a b c Nishida, K. and K. Nakaya (1990). "Taxonomy of the genus Dasyatis (Elasmobranchii, Dasyatididae) from the North Pacific." in Pratt, H.L., S.H. Gruber and T. Taniuchi. Elasmobranchs as living resources: advances in the biology, ecology, systematics, and behaviour, and the status of fisheries. NOAA Technical Report, NMFS 90. pp. 327–346.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Taniuchi, T. and M. Shimizu (January 1993). "Dental sexual dimorphism and food habits in the stingray Dasyatis akajei from Tokyo Bay, Japan". Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 59 (1): 53–60. doi:10.2331/suisan.59.53. 
  6. ^ a b Michael, S.W. (1993). Reef Sharks & Rays of the World. Sea Challengers. p. 83. ISBN 0-930118-18-9. 
  7. ^ a b Fowler, H.W.; Fowler, Henry W. (1903). "A Review of the Elasmobranchiate Fishes of Japan". Proceedings of the United States National Museum 26 (1324): 593–674. doi:10.5479/si.00963801.26-1324.593. 
  8. ^ Roberts, T.R. and J. Karnasuta (1987). "Dasyatis Zaosensis, a new whiptailed stingray (family Dasyatidae), from the Mekong River of Laos and Thailand". Environmental Biology of Fishes 20 (3): 161–167. doi:10.1007/BF00004951. 
  9. ^ Wang Y.H. and Yang W.C. (July 2001). "Two new species of Acanthobothrium from marine fishes in Xiamen, Fujian, China (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothridae)". Journal of Xiamen University Natural Science 40 (4 Supplement Sum 163): 943–948. 
  10. ^ Wang Y.H., Yang W.C., Liu S.F. and Li L.W. (July 2003). "A new genus record of Phyllobothriidae from marine fish Dasyatis akajei in China". Journal of Xiamen University Natural Science 42 (4): 542–544. 
  11. ^ Yang W.C., Liu G.C. and Lin Y.G. (January 1995). "Two new species of cestode (Lecanicephalidea: Lecanicephalidae) from marine fishes in Xiamen, south Fujian, P.R. of China". Journal of Xiamen University Natural Science 34 (1 Supplement Sum 124): 109–112. 
  12. ^ Ho, J. and P.S. Perkins (1980). "Monogenea from fishes of the Sea of Japan part 1: Order Monopisthocotylea". Annual Report of the Sado Marine Biological Station Niigata University. Supplement 10: 1–10. 
  13. ^ Timofeeva, T.A. (1983). "New representatives of monocotylids (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) from cartilaginous fishes of the South China and Yellow Seas". Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta 121: 35–47. 
  14. ^ Burreson, E.M. (August 2006). "A redescription of the fish leech Pterobdella amara (= Rhopalobdella japonica) (Hirudinida: Piscicolidae) based on specimens from the type locality in India and from Australia". Journal of Parasitology 92 (4): 677–681. doi:10.1645/GE-802R.1. PMID 16995381. 
  15. ^ Mozgovoi, A.A. (1950). "Contribution to the Anisakid fauna of fishes and reptiles". Trud. Gel'mint. Lab. 3: 102–118. 
  16. ^ Fang W.Z. and Luo D.M. (August 2006). "Description of a new ascarid species in elasmobranchs from Taiwan Strait". Journal of Parasitology 92 (4): 822–825. doi:10.1645/GE-694R1.1. PMID 16995401. 
  17. ^ Deets, G.B. and M. Dojiri (1989). "Three species of Trebius Kroyer, 1838 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on Pacific elasmobranchs". Systematic Parasitology 13 (2): 81–101. doi:10.1007/BF00015217. 
  18. ^ Nunomura, N. and Y. Honma (July 2004). "Gnathia capillata, a new species of the genus Gnathia (Crustacea, Isopoda) from Sado Island, the Sea of Japan". Contributions from the Biological Laboratory Kyoto University 29 (4): 343–349. 
  19. ^ Blaxter, J.H.S. and F.S. Russell, ed. (1984). Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 21. Academic Press. p. 62. ISBN 0-12-026121-9. 
  20. ^ FAO Yearbook [of] Fishery Statistics: Capture Production 2004, Volume 98. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2006. p. 76. ISBN 92-5-005515-3. 
  21. ^ Vannuccini, S. (1999). Shark Utilization, Marketing and Trade. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. pp. 21–23. ISBN 92-5-104361-2. 
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