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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: hogfish (English), vieja (Espanol)
 
Bodianus diplotaenia (Gill, 1862)


Mexican hogfish



Body robust, compressed;  large males  with pronounced hump between eyes; snout pointed; a canine tooth at rear of top jaw, 2 pairs of strong canines at front of top and bottom jaws; dorsal fin XII, 10; anal fin III, 12; adult  males  with long filaments on tail fin lobes and prolonged rays posteriorly on dorsal and anal fins ; pectoral rays 17; lateral line unbroken, smoothly arched; scales large, 31 with pores on lateral line.



IP:  reddish grading to yellow on posterior part of body and caudal fin; a pair of blackish stripes (may be broken) on upper half of side and individual scale margins brown to reddish;  TP:  bluish green with brown head (except lower jaw white) and narrow yellowish bar on middle of side; juveniles similar to IP but with yellow base color.


Maximum size to 76 cm, common to 35 cm.

Commonly seen on rocky reefs.

Depth: 5-75 m.



Central Baja California to the Gulf of California to northern Chile, including all the offshore islands.
   
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Biology

Adults inhabit rocky or coral areas (Ref. 9311). Sometimes also found on sandy bottoms and where marine plants abound (Ref. 9311). Solitary or forms aggregations of only a few individuals. Feed on crabs, brittle stars, mollusks, and sea urchins (Ref. 9311). At night, they agglomerate in cracks and crevices of rocks and caves to sleep (Ref. 9311). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9311). Starts life as a female, later becoming a functional male. Males defend temporary reproductive territories called leks. Sex change may be due to local social conditions, but it may also have a genetic component, since the reversal occurs over a limited size range (Ref. 28023). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
  • Thomson, D.A. 1987 Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez. The rocky-shore fishes of the Gulf of California. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson. 302 p. (Ref. 5592)
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from central Baja California and the Gulf of California to northern Chile, including all the offshore islands of Clarion, the Revillagigedos, Clipperton, Isla de Cocos and the Galapagos. It is also recorded from the northern tip of Chile between Arica and Iquique.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California), Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Eastern Pacific: Guadalupe Island and throughout the Gulf of California to Chile, including the Cocos, Malpelo, Revillagigedo and the Galapagos islands.
  • Thomson, D.A. 1987 Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez. The rocky-shore fishes of the Gulf of California. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson. 302 p. (Ref. 5592)
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Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Peru, including offshore islands, west to Galapagos Archipelago.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 5 (S) - 75 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 76.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 760 mm TL
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Max. size

76.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 5592)); max. published weight: 9,000 g (Ref. 5592)
  • Thomson, D.A. 1987 Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez. The rocky-shore fishes of the Gulf of California. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson. 302 p. (Ref. 5592)
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Diagnostic Description

Body moderately deep and compressed; head large and pointed; teeth caniniform, enlarged, and somewhat crooked, two anterior pairs in each jaw; dorsal fin with 12 spines; posterior rays of anal and dorsal fins forming filamentous lobes; lower branch of first gill arch with 12 to 13 gill rakers; very large individuals blue, with a narrow, yellow, vertical bar immediately behind the posterior edge of the pectoral fin, juveniles red or reddish brown; females with 2 longitudinal black stripes (Ref. 55763).
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Type Information

Syntype for Bodianus diplotaenia
Catalog Number: USNM 2988
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): J. Xantus
Locality: Cape St. Lucas, Baja California., Baja California Sur, Mexico, Pacific
  • Syntype: Gill, T. N. 1862. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 14 (3-4): 141-142.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This reef-associated species inhabits rocky or coral areas to depths of 75m. It is sometimes also found on sandy substrate and where marine plants abound (Gomon, 1995). At Gulf of Chiriqui, this fish could be found in all types of substrata, except sand and rubble (Dominici-Arosemena and Wolff, 2006). This species can also occasionally be found in estuaries and coastal lagoons along the tropical eastern Pacific coast (Cooke, 1992).

This species is solitary or may form aggregations of only a few individuals. It feeds on crabs, brittle stars, mollusks, and sea urchins (Gomon, 1995). At night, this species agglomerates in cracks and crevices of rocks and caves to sleep (Gomon, 1995). It starts life as a female, later becoming a functional male. Males defend temporary reproductive territories called leks. Sex change may be due to local social conditions, but it may also have a genetic component, since the reversal occurs over a limited size range (Grove and Lavenberg, 1997).

Systems
  • Marine
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Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 5 - 76 m (Ref. 9311), usually 5 - 18 m (Ref. 9311)
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Depth range based on 40 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 12 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 50000
  Temperature range (°C): 19.490 - 27.666
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.162 - 8.632
  Salinity (PPS): 32.938 - 35.261
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.242 - 4.879
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.327 - 1.385
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.028 - 17.402

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 50000

Temperature range (°C): 19.490 - 27.666

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.162 - 8.632

Salinity (PPS): 32.938 - 35.261

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.242 - 4.879

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.327 - 1.385

Silicate (umol/l): 2.028 - 17.402
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 5 - 76m.
From 5 to 76 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Near Bottom, Bottom, Bottom + water column

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Reef only, Rocks, Corals, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom)

FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits rocky or coral areas (Ref. 9311). Sometimes also found on sandy bottoms and where marine plants abound (Ref. 9311). Solitary or forms aggregations of only a few individuals. Feeds on crabs, brittle stars, mollusks, and sea urchins (Ref. 9311). At night, agglomerates in cracks and crevices of rocks and caves to sleep (Ref. 9311). Mobile invertebrate feeder (Ref. 57615).
  • Westneat, M.W. 2001 Labridae. Wrasses, hogfishes, razorfishes, corises, tuskfishes. p. 3381-3467. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9823)
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic worms, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves, sea-stars/cucumbers/urchins, ectoparasites
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
  • Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen 1966 Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 941 p. (Ref. 205)
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Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Bodianus diplotaenia

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 25
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Allen, G., Rivera, F., Edgar, G. & Zapata, F.

Reviewer/s
Robertson, R., Liu, M., Sadovy, Y. & Craig, M.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in the Eastern Pacific, and common throughout most of its range. There are no known major threats to this species, and no current indication of population decline. It is listed as Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
This species is considered to be abundant throughout much of its range.

This fish was studied in Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica (Dominici-Arosemena et al. 2005) with an density of 0.03±0.03 ind./ m2. At Gulf Dulce, Costa Rica, a mean density of 0.005±0.015 ind./ m2 was recorded, with a relative abundance of 0.131% (Figueroa, 2001). Within a five-site-study survey, at Catalinas Islands, this fish was observed 51 times in all sites (Espinoza and Salas, 2005). In Isla Gorgona, Rubio (1986) showed that this species is frequent in rocky and coralline substrates and occassionally found on sandy substrates. In a survey at Gorgona Island coral reefs, Colombia (Zapata and Morales, 1997), a mean density of 0.158 ind./10 m2 and a frequency of observation of 41.2% was registered. This species was studied in different sites at Galapagos archipelago, with an overall mean abundance of 18.4 ind./500 m2 (Edgar et al. 2004).

According to Aburto-Oropeza and Balart (2001), B. diplotaenia is a dominant species at Los Islotes, Gulf of California, with an occurrence frequency higher than 80%. In Cabo Pulmo, Mexico, this fish was considered common, with a relative abundance between 1-5%, and a relative frequency higher than 75% (Villarreal-Cavazos et al. 2000). In Bahía de Navidad, Jalisco, still in México, this fish was captured 4 times within 12 (one each month) field trips throughout a year (Rojo-Vázquez et al. 2001)

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species. According to Dominici-Arosemena et al. (2005), this is a important aquarium fish in Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica, but such localized collecting of juveniles is unlkely to affect population.
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species distribution falls partially into a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Pacific region (WDPA 2006).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

aquarium: commercial
  • Burgess, W.E., H.R. Axelrod and R.E. Hunziker III 1990 Dr. Burgess's atlas of marine aquarium fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. 768 p.
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Wikipedia

Mexican hogfish

The Mexican hogfish, Bodianus diplotaenia, is a species of wrasse native to the eastern Pacific Ocean. Adults inhabit rocky or coral areas at depths of 5–75 m. Sometimes, they are also found on sandy bottoms and where marine plants abound. They are solitary or form aggregations of only a few individuals. Mexican hogfish feed on crabs, brittle stars, mollusks, and sea urchins. At night, they gather in cracks and crevices of rocks and caves to sleep. The Mexican hogfish starts life as a female, and later becomes a functional male. Males defend temporary reproductive territories called leks. The sex change may be due to local social conditions, but it may also have a genetic component, since the reversal occurs over a limited size range. They are oviparous, with distinct pairing during breeding.[2]

Description[edit]

The body of the Mexican hogfish is robust and compressed. Large males have a pronounced hump between their eyes. The snout is pointed. They have a canine tooth at the rear of top jaw, and two pairs of strong canines at front of the top and bottom jaws. They have 10 dorsal fins and 12 anal fins. Adult males have long filaments on their tail fin lobes and prolonged rays posteriorly on the dorsal and anal fins. They have 17 pectoral rays. The lateral line is unbroken and smoothly arched. They have 31 large scales with pores on the lateral line. The maximum size is up to 76 cm, the common size is up to 35 cm.[2]


In the initial phase, Mexican hogfish are reddish, grading to yellow on the posterior part of the body and the caudal fin. They have a pair of blackish stripes (may be broken) on the upper half of the side. Individual scale margins are brown to reddish. In the terminal phase, they are bluish green with a brown head (except for a white lower jaw) and a narrow yellowish bar on the middle of the side. Juveniles are similar to initial phase but with a yellow base color.[2]

Distribution[edit]

They are found in the eastern Pacific: Guadalupe Island and throughout the Gulf of California to Chile, including the Cocos, Malpelo, Revillagigedo and the Galapagos islands.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Allen, G., Rivera, F., Edgar, G. & Zapata, F. 2010. Bodianus diplotaenia. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 November 2013.
  2. ^ a b c Encyclopedia of Life. "Details for: Mexican Hogfish" (HTML). Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 2013-07-15. 
  3. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Bodianus diplotaenia" in FishBase. July 2013 version.
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