Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: flounder (English), sole (English), lenguado (Espanol)
 
Xystreurys liolepis Jordan & Gilbert, 1880


Fantail sole,     Fantail flounder


Body deep, height 50-55% of SL; head small 25% of SL, snout short; eyes on left side,  close together; mouth 36-38% of head length, ends under middle lower eye; teeth small, conical, 1 row each jaw, better developed on blind side;  8-9 short, fat gill rakers; dorsal 73-80 rays, origin over front half of top eye; anal 57-62 rays; eye side pectoral equal to or longer than head; pelvics in symmetric position on belly, of equal sizes; lateral line strongly arched over pectoral fin, with branch under lower eye; urinary papilla on eye-side; scales on both sides of body smooth, small scales dispersed between large scales; lateral line with 120-123 scales.

Eye side grey-brown, streaked with darker brown and small pale spots; sometimes 2 large dark blotches on lateral line, 1 at end of arch, other before tail base; dorsal, anal and tail with dark spots, pectorals with dark bars; blind side white.

Size: 53 cm.

Habitat: mud and sand bottoms.


Depth: 5-136 m.

Southern California to the Gulf of California.
   
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Biology

Inhabits muddy and sandy bottoms, from 4.6-79 m depth. Usually buried in bottoms. Feeds almost exclusively on crustaceans. Marketed fresh (Ref. 9330).
  • Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann 1983 A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850)
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from southern California to the tip of Baja California and in the Gulf of California, although it is absent from the southeastern Gulf (Galván-Magaña et al. 2000).
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, TEP non-endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic, Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily, California province, primarily, Continent, Continent only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California), Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap)
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Eastern Pacific: Monterey Bay in California, USA to Gulf of California.
  • Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann 1983 A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850)
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Eastern Pacific off southwestern North America.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 5 (S) - 136 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 53.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 530 mm TL
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Max. size

63.5 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637)); max. published weight: 3,990 g (Ref. 40637)
  • IGFA 2001 Database of IGFA angling records until 2001. IGFA, Fort Lauderdale, USA. (Ref. 40637)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found in deep nearshore areas over sand and sandy mud soft substrates to depths of 136m (Oda, 1991; Galván-Magaña et al. 2000).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

demersal; marine; depth range 5 - 79 m (Ref. 9330)
  • Hensley, D.A. 1995 Paralichthyidae. Lenguados. p. 1349-1380. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9330)
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Depth range based on 16 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 2 - 49
  Temperature range (°C): 21.311 - 21.311
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.144 - 0.144
  Salinity (PPS): 34.228 - 34.228
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.074 - 5.074
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.352 - 0.352
  Silicate (umol/l): 3.264 - 3.264

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 2 - 49
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 5 - 79m.
From 5 to 79 meters.

Habitat: demersal. Inhabits muddy and sandy bottoms, from 4.6-79 m depth. Usually buried in bottoms. Feeds almost exclusively on crustaceans. Marketed fresh (Ref. 9330).
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Soft bottom only, Mud, Sand & gravel

FishBase Habitat: Demersal
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits muddy and sandy bottoms, from 4.6-79 m depth. Usually buried in bottoms. Feeds almost exclusively on crustaceans.
  • Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann 1983 A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850)
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs)
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Xystreurys liolepis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CCTCTATTTAGTATTTGGTGCATGAGCCGGAATAGTGGGGACAGCCCTAAGTCTGCTTATTCGAGCAGAACTCAGCCAACCCGGAGCTCTCCTAGGAGACGACCAGATTTATAATGTCATCGTCACCGCACACGCTTTTGTAATAATTTTTTTTATAGTTATACCAATCATGATTGGGGGCTTTGGAAACTGACTGATCCCTCTAATAATCGGGGCCCCTGACATAGCATTTCCCCGAATAAATAACATAAGCTTCTGACTCTTACCTCCTTCATTCCTACTCCTTCTAGCTTCCTCAGGTGTTGAAGCCGGAGCTGGGACTGGATGAACCGTCTACCCTCCCTTAGCGAGCAACCTCGCCCATGCTGGAGCATCTGTCGACCTAACTATTTTCTCCCTCCACCTTGCCGGCATTTCCTCAATTCTGGGTGCTATTAACTTCATTACCACTATCATTAACATAAAACCTACAACTGTAACTATGTACCAAATCCCCCTATTTGTTTGAGCCGTTTTAATTACAGCTGTCCTCCTTTTACTCTCCCTGCCCGTCCTAGCCGCTGGTATTACGATGTTGCTCACAGATCGAAATCTGAACACCACTTTCTTCGACCCTGCCGGAGGGGGAGATCCAATCCTTTACCAACACCTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Xystreurys liolepis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
van der Heiden, A.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is relativley widespread in the Eastern Pacific, and is uncommon in many parts of its range. Although it is occationally caught as by-catch in shrimp trawling, there are no major threats for this deep water species, and no current indication of population decline. It is listed as Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
There is no population information available for this species. It is uncommon, at least in the Gulf of California, and most often caught in deeper waters.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species. It is sometimes caught as bycatch in shrimp trawling activities, but it usually lives in deeper water where the boats don't operate.
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species distribution falls partially into a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Pacific region (WDPA 2006).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: very high; price reliability: unreliable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this order
  • Hensley, D.A. 1995 Paralichthyidae. Lenguados. p. 1349-1380. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9330)
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