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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Summary

"Commonly called Mangrove Jack within Australia, the Mangrove Red Snapper is a powerful sport fish popular for it's flavour and fighting qualities. As ambush predators, these fish often hide around mangrove roots, fallen trees, rock walls and other snag areas where smaller prey reside for protection. For fishermen, these fish are most easily identified by their explosive run for cover once the hooked snappers take the bait. This initial burst of speed allows the fish to gain protection of the snag areas and the lures/baits are lost. Mature red snappers move into open waters to breed. Though they still remain difficult to catch due to their speed and proximity to sharp reef bottoms, these fish are sometimes landed by bottom fishers with heavy tackles. The mangrove red snapper is a highly regarded table fish with firm, sweet-tasting white flesh."
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Biology

A euryhaline species (Ref. 12743). Juveniles and young adults occur in mangrove estuaries, the lower reaches of freshwater streams (Ref. 30573, 48635, 44894) and tidal creeks (Ref. 44894). Adults are often found in groups around coral reefs (Ref. 9710). Eventually migrate offshore to deeper reef areas, sometimes penetrating to depths in excess of 100 m. Mainly nocturnal, this species feeds mostly on fishes and crustaceans. Excellent food fish (Ref. 5484, 44894). An important market species throughout the Indo-Pacific region, but never found in large quantities. A good aquaculture species because it doesn’t get rancid easily when frozen (Ref. 47992). It commands a good export market price with no limit on body size (Ref. 47992). No reported damaging diseases (Ref. 47992). Found in Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). Max length is 104 cm, max weight 14.5 kg and max age 39 years for specimens from the east coast of Australia (pers. comm., Andrew McDougall, 2007).
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Distribution

"Indo-West Pacific: East Africa to Samoa and the Line Islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to Australia. Has dispersed into the eastern Mediterranean (off Lebanon) via the Suez Canal but not well established there. Occurs on both east and west coasts of India. Range: 32°N - 24°S, 40°E - 180°E."
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Indo-West Pacific: East Africa to Samoa and the Line Islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to Australia. Has dispersed into the eastern Mediterranean (off Lebanon) via the Suez Canal but not well established there.
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Kiribati (Line Islands) and Society Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Derby (Western Australia), New South Wales (Australia), and Tonga; Mediterranean
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Physical Description

Morphology

"Generally greenish brown on back grading to reddish on sides and ventral parts; scales with dark centers and white margins giving overall reticulated effect. Mouth somewhat oblique, maxillary reaching to below front border of pupil. Small teeth in narrow bands in the jaws, with an outer series of enlarged ones, a few of which in the anterior part of the upper jaw are canines. Small teeth in a ^ shaped band or in a triangular patch with a posterior prolongation or in a diamond-shaped patch, on the vomer. On palatines an elongate patch of similar teeth. Scales beginning on occiput with a distinct temporal band. Preoperculum with 7-8 transverse rows of scales, posterior and inferior preopercular limb naked. Posterior and inferior border of preoperculum denticulated. Preopercular notch distinct, but shallow. Longitudinal rows of scales above lateral line parallel to it in the anterior part, ascending to dorsal profile below posterior part of spinous dorsal, parallel to axis of body below lateral line. About 47-53 transverse rows of scales above, and 38-44 below lateral line. Dorsal spines slender. First spine less than half length of second, which is shorter than third. Third and fourth spine longest, nearly equal to post orbital part of head. Soft dorsal rounded, higher or lower than spinous part. First anal spine less than half length of second, which is equal to or somewhat longer than third one, equal to snout in young specimens, shorter than snout in large specimens. Anal region rounded. Soft anal rays much higher than spines. Pectorals about one half of snout shorter than head. Ventrals as long as eye and snout together, ventral spine equal to snout. Caudal slightly emarginate. Dorsal spines (total): 10-10, Dorsal soft rays (total): 13-14, Anal spines: 3, Anal soft rays: 7-8."
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Dorsal spines (total): 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13 - 14; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 7 - 8
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Size

Max length : 150 cm TL male/unsexed. Common length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed. Max. published weight: 14.5 kg. .
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Maximum size: 1500 mm TL
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Max. size

150 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 3678)); max. published weight: 8,700 g (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 31 years (Ref. 82366)
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Juveniles and young adults occur in mangrove estuaries and in the lower reaches of freshwater streams. Eventually they migrate offshore to deeper reef areas, sometimes penetrating to depths in excess of 100 m. Mainly nocturnal, this species feeds mostly on fishes and crustaceans. This is an important market species throughout the Indo-Pacific region, but never found in large quantities.
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Diagnostic

"Preopercular notch and knob poorly developed. No black spot. Generally greenish brown on back, grading to reddish on sides and ventral parts. Trawl specimens from deep water frequently are reddish with dark scale centers and white scale margins, giving a reticulated appearance. Juveniles with a series of about eight whitish bars crossing sides, and 1 or 2 blue lines across cheek."
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Diagnostic

"Longitudinal rows of scales above lateral line parallel to it anteriorly, but sometimes appearing to rise obliquely somewhat below posterior part of spinous or soft dorsal fin. Scale-row above lateral line appear to rise obliquely under posterior part of spinous dorsal fin; scales on head begining behind eyes; colour deep red, with a silvery spot sometimes in center of each scale. - (From Talwar and Kacker, 1984)."
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Preopercular notch and knob poorly developed. Scale rows on back more or less parallel to lateral line, or parallel below spinous part of dorsal fin and sometimes rising obliquely posteriorly, or rarely with entirely oblique rows. Generally greenish brown on back, grading to reddish on sides and ventral parts. Trawl specimens from deep water frequently are reddish with dark scale centers and white scale margins, giving a reticulated appearance. Juveniles with a series of about eight whitish bars crossing sides, and 1 or 2 blue lines across cheek. L. argentimaculatus distinguished from the L. bohar by its longer snout and truncate tail and more bronze to greenish coloration (Ref. 37816).
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Look Alikes

L. argentimaculatus is distinguished from L. bohar by its longer snout and truncate tail and more bronze to greenish coloration.
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"A euryhaline species. Juveniles and young adults occur in mangrove estuaries, the lower reaches of freshwater streams and tidal creeks. Adults are often found in groups around coral reefs. Mainly nocturnal, this species feeds mostly on fishes and crustaceans. Climate: Subtropical; 16°C - 30°C."
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Environment

reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); freshwater; brackish; marine; depth range 10 - 120 m (Ref. 9710)
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Depth range based on 67 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 33 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.2 - 236
  Temperature range (°C): 22.348 - 29.325
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.050 - 6.800
  Salinity (PPS): 32.200 - 35.063
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.440 - 4.744
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.085 - 0.742
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.005 - 11.564

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.2 - 236

Temperature range (°C): 22.348 - 29.325

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.050 - 6.800

Salinity (PPS): 32.200 - 35.063

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.440 - 4.744

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.085 - 0.742

Silicate (umol/l): 1.005 - 11.564
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 10 - 120m.
From 10 to 120 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. River snapper.  (Forsskal, 1775)  Attains 100 cm. Indo-West Pacific region, south to East London. A fine game-fish which enters our southeast coast estuaries and takes most baits.
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Migration

"Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations are cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km. Adults eventually migrate offshore to deeper reef areas, sometimes penetrating to depths in excess of 100 m."
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Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

"Secondary consumer. Prey: Zoobenthos, bony fishes, crabs, mysids, shrimps."
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Euryhaline species (Ref. 12743). Juveniles and young adults occur in mangrove estuaries, the lower reaches of freshwater streams (Ref. 30573, 48635, 44894) and tidal creeks (Ref. 44894). Adults are often found in groups around coral reefs (Ref. 9710). Eventually migrate offshore to deeper reef areas, sometimes penetrating to depths in excess of 100 m. Mainly nocturnal, feed mostly on fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 55). Habitat frequently consists of areas of abundant shelter in the form of caves or overhanging ledges. Carnivore (Ref. 57615).
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Diseases and Parasites

Diseases

"Mass mortality in hatchery reared juvenile L. argentimaculatus due to parasitic dinoflagellate, Amyloodinium ocellatum, was reported in the Philippines (Cruz-Lacierda et al. 2004). Mortality due to possible ammonia poisoning was observed at Tuticorin bay, East coast of India (Asha et al., 2009). Fish lymphocystis disease (FLD) cause due to iridovirus measuring 130-330 nm, was reported in marine net cage cultured L. argentimaculatus in China (Yogija, 1992) and in South east Asia (Chang & Chao, 1986)."
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Goezia Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Max. reported age: 31 years
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Reproduction

"Spawning occurs throughout the year. Fertilisation is external. Fertilized eggs of L. argentimaculatus are transparent, spherical and pelagic, and measure 0.74-0.81 mm in diameter. These fish are nonguarders and scatter their eggs in open water/substratum."
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lutjanus argentimaculatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 17
Specimens with Barcodes: 40
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Lutjanus argentimaculatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 14 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

TTCGGTGCCTGAGCCGGTATAGTCGGTACGGCCCTA---AGCCTGCTCATTCGAGCAGAGCTAAGCCAACCAGGGGCTCTCCTCGGAGAC---GACCAGATTTATAACGTAATTGTTACAGCACATGCGTTTGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATCATGATCGGAGGGTTCGGAAACTGACTGATCCCCTTAATA---ATCGGAGCTCCTGACATAGCATTCCCCCGAATAAATAACATGAGCTTTTGACTCCTCCCCCCATCATTCCTTCTACTCCTAGCCTCCTCAGGGGTAGAAGCCGGTGCTGGAACTGGGTGAACGGTCTACCCTCCCCTCGCAGGTAACCTGGCACACGCGGGGGCATCTGTTGACCTA---ACTATCTTTTCCCTCCACCTGGCGGGTGTGTCCTCAATTCTAGGGGCAATTAATTTTATTACAACAATCATTAACATGAAGCCCCCTGCCATCTCCCAATATCAGACACCCCTATTCGTCTGAGCTGTCCTAATCACGGCCGTCCTACTCCTTCTTTCCCTCCCAGTGCTAGCTGCC---GGAATTACAATGCTTCTTACAGACCGAAATCTAAACACCACCTTCTTCGACCCGGCAGGAGGAGGAGACCCGATCCTTTACCAACACCTATTCTGATTCTTTGG
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Conservation Status

Not evaluated.
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Threats

Not Evaluated
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Management

"Caught mainly with hand lines, bottom longlines, bottom set gill nets and trawls. Taken commercially in the Andamans and Maharastra coasts of India."
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

"A fine game fish. An important market species with excellent flesh, throughout the Indo-Pacific region, but never found in large quantities. A good aquaculture species because it doesn't get rancid easily when frozen. It commands a good export market price with no limit on body size. Found in Hong Kong live fish markets."
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Importance

fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
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Risks

Risk Statement

"Sometimes confused with Red Bass, a known carrier of the ciguatera poison."
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Wikipedia

Mangrove red snapper

The mangrove red snapper (commonly called mangrove jack within Australia), Lutjanus argentimaculatus, is a species of snapper native to the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific Ocean from the African coast to Samoa and the Line Islands and from the Ryukyus in the north to Australia in the south. It has also been recorded from the coast of Lebanon in the Mediterranean Sea having reached there from the Red Sea through the Suez Canal, though it is not established in the Mediterranean.[1]

Mangrove red snapper

Coloration of the mangrove red snapper ranges from burnt orange, to copper, to bronze and dark reddish-brown, depending on its age and environment. Younger fish caught in estuarine areas are often darker than older fish taken from offshore reef areas,[2] and exhibit lighter vertical bands down their flanks.

As its name implies, the mangrove red snapper is commonly found in mangrove-lined estuarine systems, although is known to migrate to offshore reefs to spawn. As ambush predators, they often dwell around mangrove roots, fallen trees, rock walls, and any other snag areas where smaller prey reside for protection. For fishermen, the telltale sign of a hooked mangrove red snapper is the explosive run for cover once the bait (or lure) is taken. Many fish (and again, lures) are lost once they reach the protection of the snags as a result of their initial burst of speed. As they mature, mangrove red snappers move into open waters, sometimes hundreds of kilometers from the coast[3] to breed. These larger fish are sometimes caught by bottom-fishers with heavy tackle, though they still remain difficult to land due to their speed and proximity to sharp reef bottoms.

The mangrove red snapper is a highly regarded table fish with firm, sweet-tasting, white flesh. While often a nuisance species when targeting the infamous barramundi, many fisherman rate the eating qualities of the jack higher than its more famous neighbour. In reef areas, mangrove red snappers are sometimes confused with two-spot red snapper or red bass (Lutjanus bohar), a known carrier of ciguatera toxin. They are, however, easily distinguishable by the large, deep pit in front of the eyes of the red bass.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Lutjanus argentimaculatus" in FishBase. December 2013 version.
  2. ^ Queensland Government Fish Note
  3. ^ Russell, D.J., et al., "Biology, Management and Genetic Stock Structure of Mangrove Jack (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) in Australia," The State of Queensland, Department of Primary Industries and the Fisheries Research Development Corporation, FRDC Project Number 1999/122, 2003.
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