Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Very common in bays. Young occur in estuaries.
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Distribution

Western Atlantic: Chesapeake Bay to northern Florida and Gulf of Mexico from southern Florida to Texas, occasionally rounding Cape Sable to southeastern Florida in USA
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: Western Atlantic from Chesapeake Bay to northern Florida, and Gulf of Mexico from Florida to Texas (Robins and Rays 1986).

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Western Atlantic.
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Western Atlantic: Chesapeake Bay to northern Florida and Gulf of Mexico from southern Florida to Texas, occasionally rounding Cape Sable to southeastern Florida in USA.
  • Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 350 mm TL
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Max. size

35.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251))
  • Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
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Type Information

Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 30693
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): S. Stearns
Year Collected: 1882
Locality: Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
  • Paratype: Ginsburg, I. 1950. Texas Journal of Science. 2 (4): 517.
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 30165
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): S. Stearns
Year Collected: 1882
Locality: Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
  • Paratype: Ginsburg, I. 1950. Texas Journal of Science. 2 (4): 517.
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 120503
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): J. Johnson
Year Collected: 1943
Locality: Corpus Christi Bay, Texas., Texas, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
  • Paratype: Ginsburg, I. 1950. Texas Journal of Science. 2 (4): 517.
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 118616
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): J. Baughman
Year Collected: 1940
Locality: Galveston, Texas, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
  • Paratype: Ginsburg, I. 1950. Texas Journal of Science. 2 (4): 517.
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 93621
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): C. Reed
Locality: From the Vicinity of Corpus Christi, Texas., Texas, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
  • Paratype: Ginsburg, I. 1950. Texas Journal of Science. 2 (4): 517.
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 125415
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): B. Evermann
Year Collected: 1891
Locality: Corpus Christi, Texas., Texas, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
  • Paratype: Ginsburg, I. 1950. Texas Journal of Science. 2 (4): 517.
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 46292
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): B. Evermann
Year Collected: 1891
Locality: Corpus Christi., Texas, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
  • Paratype: Ginsburg, I. 1950. Texas Journal of Science. 2 (4): 517.
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 91791
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): B. Marshall
Year Collected: 1929
Locality: Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Ginsburg, I. 1950. Texas Journal of Science. 2 (4): 517.
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 86113
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): C. Aschmeier
Locality: Cedar Key, Florida., Florida, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
  • Paratype: Ginsburg, I. 1950. Texas Journal of Science. 2 (4): 517.
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 39885
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): J. Moser
Locality: Off Cape Sable, Florida., Florida, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
  • Paratype: Ginsburg, I. 1950. Texas Journal of Science. 2 (4): 517.
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 131932
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1885
Locality: Florida: Tampa Bay, Florida, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paratype: Ginsburg, I. 1950. Texas Journal of Science. 2 (4): 517.
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 44665
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): J. Kauser
Year Collected: 1893
Locality: Pensacola Harbor, Florida., Escambia County, Florida, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
  • Paratype: Ginsburg, I. 1950. Texas Journal of Science. 2 (4): 517.
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 119826
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): R. Christenson
Year Collected: 1941
Locality: Ala.: Near Cedar Pt., Mississippi Sound., Alabama, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
  • Paratype: Ginsburg, I. 1950. Texas Journal of Science. 2 (4): 517.
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 22820
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): S. Stearns
Year Collected: 1878
Locality: Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
  • Paratype: Ginsburg, I. 1950. Texas Journal of Science. 2 (4): 517.
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 43065
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): R. Evans
Locality: Biloxi, Mississippi., Mississippi, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
  • Paratype: Ginsburg, I. 1950. Texas Journal of Science. 2 (4): 517.
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 132275
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): S. Stearns
Year Collected: 1885
Locality: Florida: Pensacola-Seine., Escambia County, Florida, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
  • Paratype: Ginsburg, I. 1950. Texas Journal of Science. 2 (4): 517.
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Ecology

Habitat

benthic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Habitat Type: Marine

Comments: Very common in bays; young enter estuaries (Robins and Ray 1986).

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Environment

demersal; marine
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Depth range based on 660 specimens in 2 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 150 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 137
  Temperature range (°C): 10.269 - 25.874
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.289 - 3.543
  Salinity (PPS): 33.112 - 36.359
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.519 - 6.300
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.094 - 0.522
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 2.592

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 137

Temperature range (°C): 10.269 - 25.874

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.289 - 3.543

Salinity (PPS): 33.112 - 36.359

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.519 - 6.300

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.094 - 0.522

Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 2.592
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Associations

Known predators

  • Christian RR, Luczkovich JJ (1999) Organizing and understanding a winter’s seagrass foodweb network through effective trophic levels. Ecol Model 117:99–124
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Known prey organisms

  • Christian RR, Luczkovich JJ (1999) Organizing and understanding a winter’s seagrass foodweb network through effective trophic levels. Ecol Model 117:99–124
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Threats

Not Evaluated
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