Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Very common in bays. Young occur in estuaries.
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Distribution

Western Atlantic: Chesapeake Bay to northern Florida and Gulf of Mexico from southern Florida to Texas, occasionally rounding Cape Sable to southeastern Florida in USA
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: Western Atlantic from Chesapeake Bay to northern Florida, and Gulf of Mexico from Florida to Texas (Robins and Rays 1986).

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Western Atlantic.
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Western Atlantic: Chesapeake Bay to northern Florida and Gulf of Mexico from southern Florida to Texas, occasionally rounding Cape Sable to southeastern Florida in USA.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 350 mm TL
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Max. size

35.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251))
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Type Information

Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 30693
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): S. Stearns
Year Collected: 1882
Locality: Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 30165
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): S. Stearns
Year Collected: 1882
Locality: Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 120503
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): J. Johnson
Year Collected: 1943
Locality: Corpus Christi Bay, Texas., Texas, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 118616
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): J. Baughman
Year Collected: 1940
Locality: Galveston, Texas, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 93621
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): C. Reed
Locality: From the Vicinity of Corpus Christi, Texas., Texas, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 125415
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): B. Evermann
Year Collected: 1891
Locality: Corpus Christi, Texas., Texas, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 46292
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): B. Evermann
Year Collected: 1891
Locality: Corpus Christi., Texas, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 91791
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): B. Marshall
Year Collected: 1929
Locality: Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida, United States, North America
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 86113
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): C. Aschmeier
Locality: Cedar Key, Florida., Florida, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 39885
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): J. Moser
Locality: Off Cape Sable, Florida., Florida, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 131932
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1885
Locality: Florida: Tampa Bay, Florida, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
Vessel: Albatross
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 44665
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): J. Kauser
Year Collected: 1893
Locality: Pensacola Harbor, Florida., Escambia County, Florida, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 119826
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): R. Christenson
Year Collected: 1941
Locality: Ala.: Near Cedar Pt., Mississippi Sound., Alabama, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 22820
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): S. Stearns
Year Collected: 1878
Locality: Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 43065
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): R. Evans
Locality: Biloxi, Mississippi., Mississippi, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
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Paratype for Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg
Catalog Number: USNM 132275
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): S. Stearns
Year Collected: 1885
Locality: Florida: Pensacola-Seine., Escambia County, Florida, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
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Ecology

Habitat

benthic
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Habitat Type: Marine

Comments: Very common in bays; young enter estuaries (Robins and Ray 1986).

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Environment

demersal; marine
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Depth range based on 660 specimens in 2 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 150 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 137
  Temperature range (°C): 10.269 - 25.874
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.289 - 3.543
  Salinity (PPS): 33.112 - 36.359
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.519 - 6.300
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.094 - 0.522
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 2.592

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 137

Temperature range (°C): 10.269 - 25.874

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.289 - 3.543

Salinity (PPS): 33.112 - 36.359

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.519 - 6.300

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.094 - 0.522

Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 2.592
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Associations

Known predators

Prionotus tribulus (Southern hake and searobins) is prey of:
Odostomia seminuda
Acanthocitona pygmaea
Hylina veliei
Spirals
Nudibranchia
Polinices
Terebra
Seila adamsi
Epitonium albidum
Opalia hotessieriana
Natica pusilla
Urosalpinx perrugata
Busycon spiratum
Marginella aureocincta
Marginella apicina
Marginella bella
Turbonilla dalli
Turbonilla hemphilli
Lophodytes cucullatus
Tringa melanoleuca
Catoptrophorus semipalmatus
sediment POC

Based on studies in:
USA: Florida (Estuarine)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
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Known prey organisms

Prionotus tribulus (Southern hake and searobins) preys on:
Nauplii2
Nauplii1
Foraminifera
Nematoda
Polychaeta
Harpacticoida
Pycnogonidae
Acartia tonsa
Pagurus
Pagurus maclaughlinae
Alpheus normani
Hippolyte zostericola
Odostomia seminuda
Acanthocitona pygmaea
Hylina veliei
Spirals
Nudibranchia
Polinices
Terebra
Seila adamsi
Epitonium albidum
Opalia hotessieriana
Natica pusilla
Urosalpinx perrugata
Busycon spiratum
Marginella aureocincta
Marginella apicina
Marginella bella
Turbonilla dalli
Turbonilla hemphilli

Based on studies in:
USA: Florida (Estuarine)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Threats

Not Evaluated
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