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BiologyCommonly found near shore, especially in bays and estuaries; most frequently on sandy bottom (Ref. 2850). Intertidal individuals breath air when out of water (Ref. 31184). Can leave tide pools if aquatic conditions become inhospitable (Ref. 31184). Although some individuals may spend their entire life in highly saline waters (Ref. 28693), some newly metamorphosed young move from the estuarine spawning sites to completely fresh water and may remain there for up to 6 weeks (Ref. 27547). Adults apparently tend to remain in the shallow lower estuary, or farther offshore (Ref. 27547). Feeds mostly on crabs, shrimps and amphipods, but also takes larval, juvenile and adult fishes, as well as polychaete worms, mollusks and other invertebrates (Ref. 4930). Expands its gill covers and produces a low-pitched humming sound when stressed (Ref. 6885). Considered a nuisance by anglers (Ref. 27547).