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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: jackmackerel (English), charrito (Espanol), chicharo (Espanol)
 
Trachurus symmetricus (Ayres, 1855)


Pacific jackmackerel



Elongate, slender, moderately compressed; teeth small, a single row on each jaw; no papillae at front of shoulder at edge of gill chamber; eye with fatty eyelid; gill rakers (excluding rudiments) 14-18 + 38-43; dorsal fin VIII + I, 31-33; anal fin with II isolated spines + I, 26-30; dorsal and anal fins without isolated finlets behind main part of fins; pectoral fins long, reach past origin of anal fin; well developed, vertically expanded scutes (large spiny scales) on both curved and straight parts of lateral line, those on curved part of the lateral line relatively small (25-45% of eye diameter); with an accessory lateral line along top of back under spiny dorsal fin; scales obvious over all of body except just behind pectoral fin.


Metallic blue to olive green on back, lower two-thirds paler, usually whitish to silvery; a black spot on upper edge of gill opening.


Size: reaches about 81 cm, common to 55 cm.

Habitat: a coastal pelagic species.
Depth: 0-400 m.

Alaska to the tip of Baja and the SW Gulf of California.


T. murphyi which occurs in the southern part of our region is the sister species of T. symmetricus.
   
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Biology

Often found offshore, up to 500 miles from the coast (Ref. 9283). Forms large schools (Ref. 2850). Young frequently occur in school near kelp and under piers (Ref. 2850). Feeds mainly on small crustaceans and fish larvae (Ref. 9283). Large individuals often move inshore and north in the summer (Ref. 2850). Marketed fresh, smoked, canned and frozen; eaten fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9988).
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Distribution

Range Description

This northeastern Pacific species is found from from Alaska to the tip of Baja.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, TEP non-endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic, Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily, California province, primarily, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California), Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos)
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Eastern Pacific.
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Eastern Pacific: southeastern Alaska to southern Baja California, Mexico and the Gulf of California; reported from Acapulco in Mexico and the Galapagos Islands.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Depth

Depth Range (m): 0 (S) - 400 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 8 - 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 28 - 38; Anal spines: 1 - 2; Analsoft rays: 22 - 33; Vertebrae: 23 - 25
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Size

Length max (cm): 81.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 810 mm TL
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Max. size

81.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850)); max. reported age: 30 years (Ref. 766)
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Diagnostic Description

Small specimens may have an additional forward-directed spine at first dorsal origin (embedded in larger specimens).
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Type Information

Paratype for Decapterus polyaspis
Catalog Number: USNM 143676
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): V. Brock
Year Collected: 1937
Locality: Oregon, Off Reedsport, Douglas County, Oregon, United States, Pacific
  • Paratype:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This pelagic oceanodromous species is often found offshore, up to 500 miles from the coast (Smith-Vaniz 1995) to depths of 400m. It forms large schools; the young frequently occur in schools near kelp and under piers (Eschmeyer et al. 1983). It feeds mainly on small crustaceans and fish larvae (Smith-Vaniz 1995). Large individuals often move inshore and north in the summer (Eschmeyer et al. 1983).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); marine; depth range 0 - 400 m
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Depth range based on 10 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 7 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 366
  Temperature range (°C): 6.337 - 24.488
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.075 - 37.473
  Salinity (PPS): 33.135 - 35.023
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.900 - 5.885
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.327 - 2.881
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.399 - 66.754

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 366

Temperature range (°C): 6.337 - 24.488

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.075 - 37.473

Salinity (PPS): 33.135 - 35.023

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.900 - 5.885

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.327 - 2.881

Silicate (umol/l): 2.399 - 66.754
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Habitat Type: Marine

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Depth: 0 - 400m.
Recorded at 400 meters.

Habitat: pelagic.
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Near Surface, Mid Water, Water column only

Habitat: Water column

FishBase Habitat: Pelagic
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Migration

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Often found offshore, up to 500 miles from the coast (Ref. 9283). Forms large schools (Ref. 2850). Young frequently occur in school near kelp and under piers (Ref. 2850). Feeds mainly on small crustaceans and fish larvae (Ref. 9283). Large individuals often move inshore and north in the summer (Ref. 2850).
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore, Planktivore

Diet: Pelagic crustacea, zooplankton, pelagic fish eggs, pelagic fish larvae, bony fishes
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Associations

Known prey organisms

Trachurus symmetricus (jack mackerel) preys on:
zooplankton
detritus

Based on studies in:
USA: California, Southern California (Marine, Sublittoral)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • T. A. Clark, A. O. Flechsig, R. W. Grigg, Ecological studies during Project Sealab II, Science 157(3795):1381-1389, from p. 1384 (1967).
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Known predators

Trachurus symmetricus (jack mackerel) is prey of:
Sebastes miniatus
Scorpaena guttata
Zalophus californianus

Based on studies in:
USA: California, Southern California (Marine, Sublittoral)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • T. A. Clark, A. O. Flechsig, R. W. Grigg, Ecological studies during Project Sealab II, Science 157(3795):1381-1389, from p. 1384 (1967).
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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 30 years (wild)
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Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Trachurus symmetricus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 4 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

TTGGCACCCTTTATCTAGTATTTGGTGCTTGAGCTGGAATAGTAGGAACCGCTTTAAGCCTGCTTATTCGGGCAGAACTAAGCCAACCTGGCGCCCTTCTAGGGGATGACCAAATTTACAACGTAATTGTTACGGCCCACGCTTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATTATGATTGGAGGCTTTGGAAACTGACTGATTCCACTAATGATCGGAGCCCCTGATATAGCCTTCCCTCGAATGAATAACATGAGCTTCTGACTACTCCCTCCCTCCTTCCTTTTGCTTTTAGCCTCTTCAGGTGTTGAAGCCGGGGCCGGAACTGGTTGAACAGTCTATCCCCCACTGGCTGGGAACCTTGCCCACGCCGGAGCATCCGTAGATTTAACCATCTTCTCCCTTCACCTAGCAGGGGTCTCATCAATTCTAGGGGCTATTAACTTTATTACCACTATTATCAACATGAAACCTCCTGCAGTCTCAATATATCAAATCCCACTATTTGTTTGAGCTGTCTTAATTACAGCTGTCCTTCTTCTTCTCTCTCTTCCTGTCCTAGCTGCTGGCATTACAATACTTTTAACAGACCGAAATCTAAATACTGCTTTCTTTGACCCAGCAGGCGGGGGAGACCCAATTCTTTATCAACACCTATTCTGATTCTTCGG
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Trachurus symmetricus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Smith-Vaniz, B, Robertson, R. & Dominici-Arosemena, A.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in the northeastern Pacific. Although this species is commercially fished, including as bycatch, there is no current indication of widespread population decline. It is listed as Least Concern.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
There is no population information available for this species. This species can be locally abundant.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Although this species is caught in commercial fisheries, it is not thought to be experiencing any widespread population decline from the fishery.

This species is caught in commercial fisheries, sometimes as bycatch.This is an important sport fish, and is a bait fish. In the commercial fisheries it is caught with purse seines in mixed schools (Scomber japonicus). Also caught with round-hull nets.This species is utilized canned and fresh, and for fish meal.

Landing: mainly USA in area 77 - from 1,000 to 10,000. It is typically caught with seines.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known species specific conservation measures.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
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