Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits rocky and sandy pools and runs of small to large rivers. Common in clear, warm streams. Voracious minnow with pike-like habits (Ref. 5723). Small pikeminnows (less than or equal to 7 cm SL) are found in shallow water with cover and lower velocities. The microhabitat use of these juveniles is controlled by the presence of large pikeminnows which connotes intraspecific predation. The microhabitat shift is observed to be significantly influenced by the presence rather than the number of large pikeminnows in the area (Ref. 55069).
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Distribution

endemic to a single state or province

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: Sacramento-San Joaquin, Pajaro-Salinas, Russian River, upper Pit River, and Clear Lake drainages, California (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 1991). Recently introduced in Eel River, California (Carney and Page 1990).

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Range Description

Sacramento-San Joaquin, Pajaro-Salinas, Russian River, upper Pit River, and Clear Lake drainages, California (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 1991). Recently introduced in Eel River, California (Carney and Page 1990).
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North America: Sacramento-San Joaquin, Pajaro-Salinas, Russian, Clear Lake and upper Pit River drainages in California, USA.
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California, U.S.A.
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Physical Description

Size

Length: 115 cm

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Maximum size: 1400 mm TL
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Max. size

140 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723)); max. reported age: 9 years (Ref. 72486)
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Type Information

Syntype for Ptychocheilus harfordi
Catalog Number: USNM 27246
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): D. Jordan
Year Collected: 1880
Locality: Sacremento, R., Cal., California, United States, North America
  • Syntype:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Freshwater

Comments: Larger and clearer intermittent and permanent streams (with summer temperatures in excess of 15 C) (Lee et al. 1980). Rocky and sandy pools and runs of small to large rivers; common in clear, warm streams (Page and Burr 1991). Usually in undisturbed habitat; rare or absent where introduced predatory fishes plentiful. Usually spawns in streams in gravel riffles where water temperatures exceed 14 C. Populations in reservoirs may spawn near shore on gravel areas (Moyle 1976). Eggs adhere to rocks and gravel.

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Larger and clearer intermittent and permanent streams (with summer temperatures in excess of 15 C) (Lee et al. 1980). Rocky and sandy pools and runs of small to large rivers; common in clear, warm streams (Page and Burr 1991). Usually in undisturbed habitat; rare or absent where introduced predatory fishes plentiful. Usually spawns in streams in gravel riffles where water temperatures exceed 14 C. Populations in reservoirs may spawn near shore on gravel areas (Moyle 1976). Eggs adhere to rocks and gravel.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

demersal; freshwater
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Migrates upstream to spawn. Also migrates upstream to feed when stream flow high, downstream in summer when stream flow reduced (Moyle 1976).

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Small fish feed primarily on aquatic insect larvae or on surface insects. Squawfish over 10 cm SL prey mostly on fish (e.g., small squawfish, suckers, sculpins, trout, salmon) (Moyle 1976, Brown 1990).

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General Ecology

Large individuals sedentary (based on daytime summer observations, Brown 1990). Oldest Sacramento squawfish on record was 9 years old (Moyle 1976).

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Sexually mature by beginning of 3rd or 4th summer. Migrates upstream to spawn in April and May. Fecundity probably high; one 50 cm SL female contained 17,730 eggs (Moyle 1976). Fry observed schooling soon after adult spawning.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Ptychocheilus grandis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CCTCTATCTTGTATTTGGTGCCTGAGCAGGAATAGTGGGAACCGCTTTAAGCCTTCTTATTCGGGCCGAACTTAGCCAACCCGGATCACTCCTAGGTGATGACCAGATTTATAATGTTATTGTTACCGCCCATGCCTTCGTTATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATTCTTATTGGAGGATTCGGAAATTGACTCGTCCCCCTAATAATTGGCGCACCTGATATAGCATTCCCCCGAATGAATAACATAAGCTTCTGACTTCTCCCCCCATCATTCCTTCTTCTATTAGCCTCTTCTGGTGTTGAGGCCGGAGCTGGGACAGGGTGAACAGTATACCCCCCACTTGCAGGTAACCTGGCCCACGCGGGGGCATCCGTAGATCTAACAATCTTCTCACTACATCTGGCAGGTGTCTCATCAATCTTAGGGGCAGTAAACTTTATTACCACAATTATTAATATAAAACCCCCAGCCATCTCCCAATACCAGACACCTCTCTTCGTATGGGCCGTACTTGTAACAGCCGTTCTTCTTCTGTTATCACTACCAGTCCTGGCTGCCGGAATCACAATGCTTCTTACAGATCGAAATCTTAACACCACATTCTTTGACCCAGCGGGAGGGGGAGATCCAATTTTATATCAACACCTG
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ptychocheilus grandis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
NatureServe

Reviewer/s
Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of the large extent of occurrence, large number of subpopulations, large population size, and lack of major threats. Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable, or the species may be declining but not fast enough to qualify for any of the threatened categories under Criterion A (reduction in population size).
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Population

Population
This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Formerly more abundant than at present.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Comments: Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.

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Major Threats
Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.
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Not Evaluated
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Currently, this species is of relatively low conservation concern and does not require significant additional protection or major management, monitoring, or research action.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
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Wikipedia

Sacramento pikeminnow

The Sacramento pikeminnow (also known as Sacramento squawfish) is a large cyprinid fish of California. It is native to the Los Angeles River, Sacramento-San Joaquin, Pajaro-Salinas, Russian River, Clear Lake and upper Pit River river basins.

The species has been introduced into the Salt River, where it is considered an invasive species.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Salt River Basin Assessment Report". Coastal Watershed Planning and Assessment Program. California Department of Fish and Game. May 2005. Retrieved October 20, 2013. 
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: See Carney and Page (1990) for a diagnosis and information on meristic variation. See Mayden et al. (1991) for a morphometric phylogenetic analysis of the genera MYLOPHARODON and PTYCHOCHEILUS (no taxonomic changes were proposed).

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