Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

A highly priced commercial fish (Ref. 89718).
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Distribution

Range Description

The species is recorded from Guizhou, Guanxi and Gueangdong provinces; a widespread species in the Pearl River basin (Xi Jiang, Dong Jiang and Bei Jiang).
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China.
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Asia: China.
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Physical Description

Size

Max. size

15.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 26563))
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Diagnostic Description

High body, side flat, with ridges on the backside. Upper and lower jaw not protruding. Some wavy stripes on the sides (Ref. 85820).
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Ecology

Habitat

Yangtze River Benthopelagic Habitat

This taxon is one of a number of benthopelagic species in the Yangtze River system. Benthopelagic fish inhabit the water column niche immediately above the bottom, feeding on benthos and zooplankton.

The upper Yangtze basin consists chiefly of Paleozoic limestone and terrigenous sedimentary rock, with some granitic material. The most downstream element of the upper Yangtze basin is often termed the Sichuan Basin; here the Yangtze cuts through Triassic and Permian material before entering the Three Gorges. The Three Gorges area is a stretch of the Yangtze that runs approximately 660 kilometers, terminating at the site of the Three Gorges Dam. Prior to construction of the dam, the Three Gorges area was a site of exceptional natural beauty; after dam construction the gorge areas were filled with approximately 100 meters in depth of Yangtze water, and considerable amounts of the watershed were graded.

The lower Yangtze basin consists of anabranching river structures and Pleistocene coastal terraces. Prior to development of the Three Gorges Dam, the Yangtze Delta was replenished with a copious sediment load reaching the river mouth; however, the dam has now severely limited the natural flow and deposition of sediment to the delta region. Consequently, the integrity of the delta is been compromised, with scouring exceeding deposition, and the very stability of the delta is endangered.

Lower and middle basins of the Yangtze carry heavy pollutant loads. In the lower Yangtze basin nitrate levels are high, measuring at about 1000 tons per day at Datong; these levels accrue from high applications of chemical fertilizer applied and also considerable loadings of untreated sewage due to the large human population of the basin, with correspondingly little infrastructure for sewage treatment.

Heavy metal concentrations are also high in the lower Yangtze, with measurements of dissolved lead at 0.078 microgram/liter; cadmium (0.024 microgram/liter), chromium (0.57 microgram/liter), copper (1.9 microgram/liter), and nickel (0.50 microgram/liter). Levels of dissolved arsenic have been measured at 3.3 microgram/liter) and zinc at 1.5 microgram/liter), both notably higher by factors of 5.5 and 2.5 respectively than other typical large world rivers. In Yangtze River suspended sediment, arsenic comprises 31 microgram/gram, lead comprises 83 microgram/gram, and nickel comprises 52 micrograms/gram of sediment content

A number of other benthopelagic associates are found in the Yangtze, including: Anabarilius polylepis, Bangana rendahli, Pseudogyrinocheilus prochilus, Sinocyclocheilus grahami and Siniperca roulei. The demersal fish Silurus meridionalis also is found as a Yangtze River endemic species.

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It preys on small fish, shrimps and aquatic insects. Found in upper sections of flowing rivers with stony bottoms

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

benthopelagic; freshwater
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Siniperca undulata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

GGTGCTTGAGCCGGAATAGTGGGCACAGCCCTA---AGCCTGCTCATTCGAGCAGAACTAAGCCAACCAGGCGCCCTCCTAGGAGAC---GACCAAATTTATAATGTAATTGTTACAGCACATGCATTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTATGATCGGAGGATTCGGAAACTGGCTCGTACCACTAATA---ATTGGTGCCCCAGACATAGCATTCCCTCGAATAAACAACATGAGTTTTTGACTACTCCCACCATCCTTCCTTCTCCTTCTTGCCTCTTCCGGAGTAGAAGCTGGGGCCGGAACAGGGTGAACCGTTTATCCACCCCTGGCAGGAAATTTAGCCCATGCAGGGGCATCCGTCGACCTA---ACCATCTTTTCTCTCCATTTAGCAGGTATTTCTTCCATCCTCGGGGCTATCAACTTCATTACAACTATTATTAACATGAAACCCCCTGCCATCTCCCAATACCAGACCCCCCTCTTCGTATGGGCAGTCCTGATCACTGCTGTGCTTCTTCTGCTCTCCCTGCCCGTCCTCGCTGCT---GGCATTACAATGCTTCTTACAGACCGAAACCTCAACACCACTTTCTTTGACCCCGCTGGTGGAGGCGACCCAATCCTTTACCAACACCTATTCTGATTCTTTGGCCACCCAGAAGTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Siniperca undulata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Zhao, H.

Reviewer/s
Allen, D., Cui, K., Zhou, W. & Chen, X.-Y.

Contributor/s

Justification
Relatively widely spread historically (Zheng 1989) in the Pearl River basin (Xi Jiang, Dong Jiang and Bei Jiang) in southern China. It has been impacted by overfishing and pollution but there are no data on population trends, and is considered Near Threatened, as its population decline is suspected to be close to meeting 30% over the past 10 years. Further investigation of species populations, distributions and threats is needed for this species.
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Population

Population
Though the species widespread in China, the total population is not large, and it has been impacted by overfishing.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Pollution and overfishing are the threats factors.
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Near Threatened (NT)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Research into populations trends, distribution, and threats is needed.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
  • Shiming, L., C. Kunzheng, Z. Huihong, C. Ke, G. Lian, F. Jinghua, Z. Xueying, T. Xiaoli, Z. Jia’en, Y. Yanqong, L. Huashou and H. Hongzhi 2011 Freshwater ecosystem services and biodiversity values of the Beijiang River, China. p. 4-122. In Report on highland aquatic ecosystem services and biodiversity values, including livelihoods, trade, policy and conservation oriented inputs to two global online databases. Highland Aquatic Resources Conservation and Sustainable Development (HighARCS) Project. Deliverable 3.1, Project No. 213015 of the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme. 363 p. Work Package 3 report. South China Agricultural University. (Ref. 89718)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=89718&speccode=15879 External link.
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