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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Adults are found in coastal waters up to at least 50 m depth (Ref. 9283). They generally form schools near the bottom (Ref. 9283). Juveniles are encountered near the surface (Ref. 9283). They feed on small fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 9283). Marketed fresh and salted or dried (Ref. 9283).
  • Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann 1983 A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850)
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Description

  Common names: moonfish (English), jorobado (Espanol), palometa (Espanol)
 
Selene peruviana (Guichenot, 1866)


Pacific moonfish



Body somewhat rectangular and strongly compressed; head moderately deep with rounded nape and steep, slightly concave forehead-snout profile; lower gill rakers (excluding rudiments) 30-34; dorsal rays VIII+I, 20-24, spines of dorsal fin short, with at least last one isolated; anal rays II+I, 16-19; dorsal and anal fin spines become embedded with age;  dorsal and anal fin lobes relatively short; front spines of dorsal fin elongate in juveniles; no isolated finlets after 2nd  dorsal and anal fins; pectoral long, curved; straight part of lateral line with poorly developed, small scutes (hard spiny scales); scales very small, imbedded in skin, body appears scaleless.


Overall silvery; pectoral and caudal fins yellowish; juvenile with a black spot on the flank.


Maximum size to 85 cm.

Habitat: demersal on sandy bottoms.

Depth: 1-50 m.

Southern California to the Gulf of California to Chile and (rarely) the Galapagos.
   
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Distribution

Range Description

This eastern Pacific species is found from southern California to the Gulf of California to northern Chile, including the Galapagos archipelago.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continental TEP endemic, 3 provinces (Cortez + Mexican + Panamic) endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California), Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Eastern Pacific: Redondo Beach in southern California, USA to Peru; rare north of Baja California, Mexico.
  • Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann 1983 A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850)
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Eastern Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 1 (S) - 50 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 85.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 330 mm FL
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Max. size

40.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763))
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Diagnostic Description

Body very short, deep, and compressed; lower branch of first gill arch with 30 to 35 gill rakers; dorsal fin with 8 spines followed by another spine and 21 to 24 soft rays (VIII1, 21-24); anterior lobe of second dorsal and anal fins not elongated in adults; anterior dorsal spines prolonged in juveniles; body scaleless; lateral line scutes very weak and poorly differentiated; body silvery to gold with metallic blue highlights; juveniles silvery, with a dark oval stain on the straight part of the lateral line (ref. 55763).
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Type Information

Type for Vomer declivifrons
Catalog Number: USNM 81773
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): S. Meek & S. Hildebrand
Year Collected: 1912
Locality: Panama Market, Panama, Panama, Pacific
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This is a benthopelagic and demersal species found in coastal waters up to at least 50 m depth. It generally forms schools near the bottom. The juveniles are encountered near the surface. It feeds on small fishes and crustaceans (Smith-Vaniz 1995).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

benthopelagic; marine; depth range ? - 50 m (Ref. 9283)
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Depth range based on 46 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 2 - 281.5
  Temperature range (°C): 20.901 - 25.380
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.270 - 2.356
  Salinity (PPS): 34.257 - 34.681
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.556 - 5.178
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.446 - 0.586
  Silicate (umol/l): 3.907 - 4.219

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 2 - 281.5

Temperature range (°C): 20.901 - 25.380

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.270 - 2.356

Salinity (PPS): 34.257 - 34.681

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.556 - 5.178

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.446 - 0.586

Silicate (umol/l): 3.907 - 4.219
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 0 - 50m.
Recorded at 50 meters.

Habitat: benthopelagic.
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Salinity: Marine, Brackish, Freshwater

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Near Bottom, Bottom, Bottom + water column

Habitat: Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Soft bottom only, Sand & gravel, Beach, Estuary

FishBase Habitat: Bentho-Pelagic
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Trophic Strategy

A pelagic and demersal species found in coastal waters up to at least 50 m depth (Ref. 9283). Juveniles are encountered near the surface (Ref. 9283). Feeds on small fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 9283). Piscivore (Ref. 57615).
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Selene peruviana

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 19
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Smith-Vaniz, B, Robertson, R., Dominici-Arosemena, A. & Molina, H.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in the tropical eastern Pacific. There are no major threats to this species, and no current indication of widespread population decline. It is listed as Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
There is no population information available for this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species.


This species is caught in artisanal fisheries using gill nets. This species is an important commercial fish in Golfo de Montijo, Panama (Vega 2004). It is marketed fresh and salted or dried (Smith-Vaniz 1995). This species is also caught with shrimp trawls.
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known species specific conservation measures. However, this species' distribution includes a number of Marine Protected Areas in the tropical eastern Pacific region.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: medium; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
  • Coppola, S.R., W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, N. Scialabba and K.E. Carpenter 1994 SPECIESDAB: Global species database for fishery purposes. User's manual. FAO Computerized Information Series (Fisheries). No. 9. Rome, FAO. 103 p. (Ref. 171)
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