Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: moonfish (English), jorobado (Espanol), palometa (Espanol)
 
Selene orstedii Lütken, 1880


Mexican moonfish,     Hairfin lookdown



Body pentagonal shape and strongly compressed; head very deep with nape profile rounded and very steep, straight forehead-snout profile; lower gill rakers (excluding rudiments) 14-17; dorsal rays VIII+I, 17-20, spines of dorsal fin short, with at least last one isolated; anal rays II+I, 17-20; dorsal and anal fin spines become embedded with age;  dorsal and anal fin lobes prolonged in adults; in juveniles front spines of dorsal and anal fins elongate and filamentous; pelvic fins elongate in juvenile, becoming very short in adults, anal spines filamentous; no isolated finlets after 2nd  dorsal and anal fins; pectoral long, curved; straight part of lateral line with poorly developed, small scutes (hard spiny scales); scales very small, imbedded in skin, body appears scaleless.


Overall silvery.

Size: attains 31 cm.

Habitat: demersal on sandy bottoms; juveniles common in estuaries.

Depth: 1-50 m.

Southern Baja and the mouth of the Gulf of California to Ecuador.
   
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Biology

A pelagic and demersal species found in shallow coastal waters (Ref. 9283) Forms small schools, generally near the bottom (Ref. 9283). Feeds on squid, small crabs, small fishes and polychaetes (Ref. 9283). Marketed fresh and salted or dried (Ref. 9283).
  • Smith-Vaniz, W.F. 1995 Carangidae. Jureles, pámpanos, cojinúas, zapateros, cocineros, casabes, macarelas, chicharros, jorobados, medregales, pez pilota. p. 940-986. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9283)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9283&speccode=367 External link.
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Distribution

Range Description

This eastern Pacific species is found from southern Baja and the lower Gulf of California to Ecuador, including Malpelo Island.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continental TEP endemic, 3 provinces (Cortez + Mexican + Panamic) endemic, Continent

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
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Eastern Pacific: Baja California, Mexico to Colombia.
  • Smith-Vaniz, W.F. 1995 Carangidae. Jureles, pámpanos, cojinúas, zapateros, cocineros, casabes, macarelas, chicharros, jorobados, medregales, pez pilota. p. 940-986. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9283)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9283&speccode=367 External link.
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Eastern Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 1 (G) - 50 (G)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 31.0 (S)
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Size

Max. size

33.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763))
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Diagnostic Description

Body very deep, short and compressed; lower branch of first gill arch with 14 to 17 gill rakers; dorsal fin with 8 spines followed by another spine and 17 to 18 soft rays (VII1, 17-18); anterior lobes of second dorsal and anal fins elongated in adults; anterior dorsal spines greatly prolonged in juveniles; body scaleless; lateral line scutes very weak and poorly differentiated; body silvery with metallic blue green highlights; juveniles yellowish, with 4 or 5 interrupted, dark, transverse bars (Ref. 55763).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This is a benthopelagic and demersal species found in shallow coastal waters. It forms small schools, generally near the bottom and feeds on squid, small crabs, small fishes and polychaetes (Smith-Vaniz 1995). This species is found to depths of 50 m.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

benthopelagic; marine
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Depth range based on 9 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1.5 - 281.5

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1.5 - 281.5
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Salinity: Marine, Brackish

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Near Bottom, Bottom, Bottom + water column

Habitat: Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Soft bottom only, Sand & gravel, Beach, Estuary

FishBase Habitat: Bentho-Pelagic
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Trophic Strategy

A pelagic and demersal species found in shallow coastal waters. Forms small schools, generally near the bottom. Feeds on squid, small crabs, small fishes and polychaetes .
  • Smith-Vaniz, W.F. 1995 Carangidae. Jureles, pámpanos, cojinúas, zapateros, cocineros, casabes, macarelas, chicharros, jorobados, medregales, pez pilota. p. 940-986. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9283)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9283&speccode=367 External link.
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic worms, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), octopus/squid/cuttlefish, bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Smith-Vaniz, B, Robertson, R., Dominici-Arosemena, A. & Molina, H.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in the tropical eastern Pacific. There are no major threats to this species, and no current indication of widespread population decline. It is listed as Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
There is no population information available for this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species.
This species is caught in artisanal fisheries using gill nets. This species is an important commercial fish in Golfo de Montijo, Panama (Vega 2004). It marketed fresh and salted or dried (Smith-Vaniz 1995).
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known species specific conservation measures. However, this species' distribution includes a number of Marine Protected Areas in the tropical eastern Pacific region.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; price category: medium; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
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