Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits shallow water; rocky or clay-silt bottom (Ref. 5951). Bears live young. Gregarious during all life. Feeds on euphausiids, decapods, mysids, small mollusks and fishes. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 4570). A long-lived species with estimated life span of 30-50 years, slow growing and has low fecundity. Late juveniles (11-20 cm total length) were primarily associated with boulder reefs that have deep interstices amongst the boulders; as well as in exposed boulders that do not have crevices along their lower margins, but are surrounded by dense patches of cerianthid anemones, Cerianthus borealis. The use of both boulder and cerianthid habitats are either on an encounter basis, regardless of habitat saturation or predation pressure, or because boulder reefs serve as recruitment habitats, and cerianthid habitats serve as a conduit for redfish moving away from saturated boulder reef sites (Ref. 58487).
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Distribution

Iceland to Virginia
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Western North Atlantic.
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Northwest Atlantic: Gulf of St. Lawrence to shelf waters of Nova Scotia in Canada. Northeast Atlantic: off Iceland and western Greenland (Ref. 4570).
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Physical Description

Size

Max. size

30.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251))
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Ecology

Habitat

Found in shallow waters at depths of 70-500 m.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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benthic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

demersal; marine; depth range 70 - 592 m (Ref. 5951), usually 128 - 366 m (Ref. 5951)
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Depth range based on 6647 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 3881 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 14.8 - 470
  Temperature range (°C): 0.233 - 14.059
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.890 - 26.300
  Salinity (PPS): 31.662 - 35.806
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.439 - 7.831
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.546 - 1.829
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.401 - 17.288

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 14.8 - 470

Temperature range (°C): 0.233 - 14.059

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.890 - 26.300

Salinity (PPS): 31.662 - 35.806

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.439 - 7.831

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.546 - 1.829

Silicate (umol/l): 2.401 - 17.288
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Habitat Type: Marine

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Stellwagen Bank Benthic Community

 

The species associated with this article partially comprise the benthic community of Stellwagen Bank, an undersea gravel and sand deposit stretching between Cape Cod and Cape Ann off the coast of Massachusetts. Protected since 1993 as part of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary, the bank is known primarily for whale-watching and commercial fishing of cod, lobster, hake, and other species (Eldredge 1993). 

The benthic community of Stellwagen Bank is diverse and varied, depending largely on the grain size of the substrate. Sessile organisms such as bryozoans, ascidians, tunicates, sponges, and tube worms prefer gravelly and rocky bottoms, while burrowing worms, burrowing anemones, and many mollusks prefer sand or mud surfaces (NOAA 2010). Macroalgae, such as kelps, are exceedingly rare in the area — most biogenic structure along the bottom is provided by sponges, cnidarians, and worms. The dominant phyla of the regional benthos are Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, and Echinodermata (NOAA 2010). 

Ecologically, the Stellwagen Bank benthos contributes a number of functions to the wider ecosystem. Biogenic structure provided by sessile benthic organisms is critical for the survivorship of juveniles of many fish species, including flounders, hake, and Atlantic cod. The benthic community includes a greater than average proportion of detritivores — many crabs and filter-feeding mollusks — recycling debris which descends from the water column above (NOAA 2010). Finally, the organisms of the sea-bed are an important source of food for many free-swimming organisms. Creatures as large as the hump-backed whale rely on the benthos for food — either catching organisms off the surface or, in the whale’s case, stirring up and feeding on organisms which burrow in sandy bottoms (Hain et al 1995). 

As a U.S. National Marine Sanctuary, Stellwagen Bank is nominally protected from dredging, dumping, major external sources of pollution, and extraction of mammals, birds or reptiles (Eldredge 1993). The benthic habitat remains threatened, however, by destructive trawling practices. Trawl nets are often weighted in order that they be held against the bottom, flattening soft surfaces, destroying biogenic structure, and killing large numbers of benthic organisms. There is also occasional threat from contaminated sediments dredged from Boston harbor and deposited elsewhere in the region (NOAA 2010). The region benefits from close observation by NOAA and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, however, and NOAA did not feel the need to make any special recommendations for the preservation of benthic communities in their 2010 Management Plan and Environmental Assessment. 

  • Eldredge, Maureen. 1993. Stellwagen Bank: New England’s first sanctuary. Oceanus 36:72.
  • Hain JHW, Ellis SL, Kenney RD, Clapham PJ, Gray BK, Weinrich MT, Babb IG. 1995. Apparent bottom feeding by humpback-whales on Stellwagen Bank. Marine Mammal Science 11, 4:464-479.
  • National Oceanographic & Atmospheric Administration. 2010. Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctary Final Management Plan and Environmental Assessment. “Section IV: Resource States” pp. 51-143. http://stellwagen.noaa.gov/management/fmp/pdfs/sbnms_fmp2010_lo.pdf
  • National Oceanographic & Atmospheric Administration. 2010. Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctary Final Management Plan and Environmental Assessment. “Appendix J: Preliminary Species List for the SBNMS” pp. 370-381. http://stellwagen.noaa.gov/management/fmp/pdfs/sbnms_fmp2010_lo.pdf
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Coastal species (Ref. 9045). Benthic species. Preyed upon by Atlantic halibut, Atlantic cod, swordfish and harbor seals. Parasites of the species include nematode, cestodes, trematodes and copepod (Ref. 5951).
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Feeds on euphausiids, decapods, mysids, small mollusks and fishes
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Life Cycle

Ovoviviparous (Ref. 4570).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Sebastes fasciatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sebastes fasciatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 15
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
A1bd

Version
2.3

Year Assessed
1996
  • Needs updating

Assessor/s
Sobel, J.

Reviewer/s

Contributor/s
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Threats

Endangered (EN) (A1bd)
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Wikipedia

Acadian redfish

Catch of Acadian redfish

The Acadian redfish (Sebastes fasciatus), also known as the Atlantic redfish, is a marine deep-water fish belonging to the family Sebastidae.[3][4] Found in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean, the Acadian redfish lives at depths of between 70 and 500 m (230 and 1,640 ft). This fish is colored reddish-orange and can live up to 50 years or more[4][5] and reach lengths up to 20 in (508 mm).[5]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The Acadian redfish is native to the waters of the northwestern Atlantic Ocean and its range extends from Virginia, the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Nova Scotia, western Greenland and Iceland. It is found at depths varying between 70 and 500 m (230 and 1,640 ft).[2] It swims near the seabed in areas with clay-silt or rocky bottoms.[4]

Biology[edit]

The Acadian redfish feeds on a variety of crustaceans, mollusks, and smaller fish.[5] In addition, the Acadian redfish mates in the fall to late winter through means of "ovoviviparous reproduction" with around "15,000 [to] 20,000 extruded larvae produced per female" per season.[6] Due to its slow growth rate, low fecundity, harmless nature, tendency to "hit almost any bait," and being considered a great food fish, the redfish has become endangered.[4][5] Due to conservation efforts, the redfish population has rebounded and the species has been declared fully rebuilt as of June, 2012.[7] The Acadian redfish is preyed on by the halibut, the Atlantic cod, swordfishes and harbor seals.[2]

The Acadian redfish is very similar in appearance to the deepwater redfish Sebastes mentella. The two species can be distinguished by the number of soft rays in the anal fin, internal examination of the gas bladder, or by genetic testing.[6]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Sobel, J. (1996). "Sebastes fasciatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c Bailly, Nicolas (2013). "Sebastes fasciatus Storer, 1854". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  3. ^ "Sebastes fasciatus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 16 August 2008. 
  4. ^ a b c d Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2008). "Sebastes fasciatus" in FishBase. August 2008 version.
  5. ^ a b c d Acadian redfish, Maine Dept. of Marine Resources.
  6. ^ a b Ralph K. Mayo, Jon K. T. Brodziak, John M. Burnett, Michele L. Traver, and Laurel A. Col, "The 2005 Assessment of Acadian Redfish, Sebastes fasciatus Storer, in the Gulf of Maine/Georges Bank Region," Northeast Fisheries Science Center Reference Document 07-06, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce (April, 2007).
  7. ^ NOAA - FishWatch: Acadian Redfish, Retrieved 20 February 2013.

Other references[edit]

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