Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: grunt (English), roncador (Espanol), burro (Espanol), ronco (Espanol)
 
Haemulon flaviguttatum Gill, 1862


Cortez grunt,     Yellow-spotted grunt



Body oblong, compressed; mouth oblique, lower jaw projecting, opens at level of center of eye, lips not fleshy; underside of chin with 2 large pores, 2 pores in a deep hole, and a central groove; gill rakers 26-31 (usually 27-28); preoperculum finely serrated, without spines; dorsal fin continuous, with small to moderate notch in middle, X-XII, 15-18 (usually XII, 17); anal rays III, 10-11; tail forked; soft dorsal and anal densely scaled nearly to the edge of the fin; lateral-line scales 50-53; scales above the lateral line in oblique lines.



Silvery grey, small white spots in scale centers on side arranged in oblique rows; fins yellow except caudal mainly dusky blackish (with yellowish outer margin); inside mouth red; juveniles with narrow dark midlateral stripe and second stripe above, slanting from snout to upper surface of caudal peduncle, also a black spot at base of tail fin.

Size: reaches 42 cm.

Habitat: occurs near shore on rocky reefs, often seen in schools.

Depth: 1-30 m.

Southern California to the Gulf of California to Peru and Malpelo.   
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Biology

Benthic in coastal waters. Forms schools over rocky and sandy bottoms. Feeds at night. Marketed fresh.
  • McKay, R.J. and M. Schneider 1995 Haemulidae. Burros, corocoros, chulas, gallinazos, roncos. p. 1136-1173. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9114)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9114&speccode=13701 External link.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from southern California and the Gulf of California to Peru, including Malpelo Island.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California), Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Eastern Pacific.
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Eastern Pacific: Mexico to Ecuador.
  • McKay, R.J. and M. Schneider 1995 Haemulidae. Burros, corocoros, chulas, gallinazos, roncos. p. 1136-1173. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9114)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9114&speccode=13701 External link.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 1 (S) - 30 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 42.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 420 mm ---
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Max. size

42.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9114))
  • McKay, R.J. and M. Schneider 1995 Haemulidae. Burros, corocoros, chulas, gallinazos, roncos. p. 1136-1173. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9114)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9114&speccode=13701 External link.
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Diagnostic Description

Body oblong, compressed, and fairly deep (depth contained 3.0 to 3.1 times in standard length); mouth large, terminal, and oblique, its anterior edge located at the same level as the center of the eye; first gill arch with 26 to 36 gill rakers; dorsal fin notched, with 10 to 12 spines and 15 to 18 soft rays (X-XII, 15-18); second anal spine longer and stronger than third; scale series above lateral line oblique; body light brown; each scale bearing a pearly blue spot, the spots appearing to form lines following the scale series; fins yellowish (Ref. 55763).
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Type Information

Type for Haemulon flaviguttatum
Catalog Number: USNM 3681
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): J. Xantus
Locality: C. San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico, Pacific
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This benthic, demersal species can be found in coastal waters to 30m depth. It forms schools over rocky and sandy substrate (McKay and Schneider, 1995). This species can also be found at deep rocky walls and reefs, as well as in massive corals and exposed shallow rocky reefs in Gulf of Chiriqui, Panama (Dominici-Arosemena and Wolff, 2006). Juveniles can be found near estuaries in Mexico (Cooke, 1992).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

demersal; marine
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Depth range based on 21 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 3 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 54
  Temperature range (°C): 21.311 - 24.554
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.144 - 3.645
  Salinity (PPS): 34.228 - 35.261
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.733 - 5.074
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.352 - 0.897
  Silicate (umol/l): 3.264 - 7.763

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 54

Temperature range (°C): 21.311 - 24.554

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.144 - 3.645

Salinity (PPS): 34.228 - 35.261

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.733 - 5.074

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.352 - 0.897

Silicate (umol/l): 3.264 - 7.763
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Salinity: Marine, Brackish

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Rocks, Reef and soft bottom, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom), Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Sand & gravel

FishBase Habitat: Demersal
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Trophic Strategy

Benthic in coastal waters. Forms schools over rocky and sandy bottoms. Feeds at night.
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore, Planktivore

Diet: mobile benthic worms, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves, octopus/squid/cuttlefish, zooplankton
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Haemulon flaviguttatum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

CTTTATCTAGTATTTGGTGCTTGGGCTGGGATAGTAGGAACAGCCCTA---AGCCTACTTATCCGGGCAGAACTAAGCCAACCAGGCGCACTCCTCGGGGAC---GACCAGATTTATAACGTAATTGTTACTGCGCATGCGTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATTCTCATTGGAGGATTTGGAAACTGACTTGTTCCCCTAATG---ATCGGAGCGCCCGACATGGCATTCCCCCGAATGAACAATATGAGCTTTTGACTCCTCCCTCCTTCTTTCCTTCTCCTTCTCGCCTCTTCAGGGGTAGAGGCTGGGGCTGGAACGGGGTGAACTGTCTACCCCCCTCTAGCTGGGAATCTAGCACATGCCGGGGCGTCGGTTGACCTT---ACAATCTTCTCCCTCCACTTAGCAGGTGTCTCATCGATCCTTGGAGCCATCAACTTCATTACAACAATTATTAACATGAAACCTCCTGCCATCTCGCAGTACCAAACTCCCCTATTCGTATGATCAGTTCTCGTTACTGCCGTCCTTCTTCTCCTGTCTCTCCCAGTACTCGCAGCT---GGCATTACAATGCTCCTTACAGACCGAAACCTAAATACCACTTTCTTCGACCCCGCCGGAGGAGGTGACCCTATTCTTTACCAACATCTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Haemulon flaviguttatum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Allen, G. & Robertson, R.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in the Eastern Pacific, and common in at least part of its range. There are no known major threats to this species, and no current indication of population decline. It is listed as Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
This species is common. It was among the most abundant fishes (1.32%) in a gill net fishing survey conducted in Bahía de Navidad, the coastal zone of the central Mexican Pacific (Rojo-Vázquez et al. 2001), together with carangids, kyphosids, scombridis and lutjanids.

However, in the Gulf of Papagayo, Panama (Dominici et al. 2005), a mean density <0.01 ind/ m2 was recorded. In surveys made at Los Islotes, Gulf of California (Aburto-Oropeza and Balart, 2001), and near Gorgona Island (Rubio, 1986; Zapata and Morales, 1997), and in the Gulfo Dulce, Costa Rica (Figueroa, 2001) this species could not be found.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species. This species is of minor commercial importance (McKay and Schneider, 1995).
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species distribution falls partially into a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Pacific region (WDPA 2006).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: medium; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
  • McKay, R.J. and M. Schneider 1995 Haemulidae. Burros, corocoros, chulas, gallinazos, roncos. p. 1136-1173. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9114)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9114&speccode=13701 External link.
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