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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found close to shore and also entering estuaries (e.g. Aluhaluh on Barito River in Kalimantan, Indonesia). Ascends rivers into the tidal zone (Ref. 12693). Feeds on mysids, Pseudodiaptomus and copepod eggs, also prawns and other small crustaceans, bivalve eggs and larvae, amphipods and small fishes. Spawns in late February or early March to July or August (around Karwar, India). Used as fish meal or fertilizer (Ref. 4832).
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=188&speccode=24 External link.
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Distribution

Indo-West Pacific.
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Indo-West Pacific: in tropical waters, from the Gulf of Oman to at least Madras, perhaps to the north and along the coasts of Myanmar, certainly at Penang, to the Java Sea, and Gulf of Thailand.
  • Munroe, T.A., T. Wongratana and M.S. Nizinski 1999 Pristigasteridae: Ilishas, pellonas. p. 1754-1770. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 38477)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=38477&speccode=1652 External link.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 51 - 63
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=188&speccode=24 External link.
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Size

Maximum size: 180 mm SL
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Max. size

20.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 12693))
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Diagnostic Description

Belly convex in front, with 29 to 35 scutes. Mouth pointing obliquely upward; lower gill rakers 22 to 28, increasing with size of fish. Pectoral fin usually about equal to head length or greater; dorsal fin small, well behind midpoint of body; anal fin long, its origin well before dorsal fin origin.
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=188&speccode=24 External link.
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

pelagic-neritic; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); brackish; marine
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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 39.5 - 39.5
  Temperature range (°C): 27.608 - 27.608
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.429 - 0.429
  Salinity (PPS): 32.901 - 32.901
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.735 - 3.735
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.285 - 0.285
  Silicate (umol/l): 8.653 - 8.653
 
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Migration

Amphidromous. Refers to fishes that regularly migrate between freshwater and the sea (in both directions), but not for the purpose of breeding, as in anadromous and catadromous species. Sub-division of diadromous. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.Characteristic elements in amphidromy are: reproduction in fresh water, passage to sea by newly hatched larvae, a period of feeding and growing at sea usually a few months long, return to fresh water of well-grown juveniles, a further period of feeding and growing in fresh water, followed by reproduction there (Ref. 82692).
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Trophic Strategy

Feeds on fish, benthic and planktonic invertebrates (Ref. 188).
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=188&speccode=24 External link.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Opisthopterus tardoore

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Genomic DNA is available from 1 specimen with morphological vouchers housed at Queensland Museum
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: low; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
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