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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Meso- (Ref. 27000) and bathypelagic (Ref. 58302).
  • Gibbs, R.H. and M.A. Barnett 1990 Melanostomiidae. p. 308-337. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4468)
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Data on Catalog of Fishes

View data on Catalog of Fishes here.

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© Kenaley, Christopher

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Type locality

Off northwestern coast of Australia [Eastern Indian Ocean], Challenger station 181, depth 2440 fathoms.

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Type specimen(s)

Holotype: BMNH 1887.12.7.226.

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Main Reference

Kenaley CP, Gomon MF. 2008. Family Stomiidae. In: Gomon MF, Bray D, Kuiter RH, editors. The Fishes of Australia's South Coast, Revised Edition. Sydney: New Holland Press.

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Distribution

scattered records from 40°N-13°N
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Eastern Atlantic: scattered records from 50°N-31°N, then between 16°N-18°S and from 28°S-37°S but not taken close to the continent south of the equator. Western Atlantic: scattered records from 40°N-13°N. Also known from the Indian and Pacific oceans. South China Sea (Ref.74511).
  • Gibbs, R.H. and M.A. Barnett 1990 Melanostomiidae. p. 308-337. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4468)
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Probably worldwide in oceanic waters of temperate, subtropical, and tropical latitudes.

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Circumglobal in tropical and temperate seas, including Hawaiian Islands.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 20 - 24; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 23 - 28
  • Gibbs, R.H. Jr. 1986 Melanostomiidae. p. 236-243. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 3984)
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Floor of mouth present, membrane connecting mandibles; snout length nearly equal to eye diameter; chin barbel present, simple and not dendritic. Numerous, equally spaced, small teeth on upper and lower jaws, anteriormost teeth on dentary largest; anterior-most fangs curved posteriorly; group of variously-sized AOPs; bases of dorsal and anal fin covered by skin; ventral-fin base nearer caudal-fin base than to tip of snout; serial photophores in interrupted groups; groups of small photophores and unorganized luminescent tissue scattered over body; pectoral fins inserted low on body, just behind opercular flap; ventral fins on anterior half of body.

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Size

Maximum size: 221 mm SL
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Max. size

22.1 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 4468))
  • Gibbs, R.H. and M.A. Barnett 1990 Melanostomiidae. p. 308-337. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4468)
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To more than 22 cm.

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Diagnostic Description

Body moderately elongated, slightly compressed. Snout shorter than eye. Jaws slender, gape slightly curved upward. Barbel slender, tapering without a bulb. Velvety dark brown to black (Ref. 37473).
  • Gibbs, R.H. Jr. 1986 Melanostomiidae. p. 236-243. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 3984)
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Body moderately long, its depth less than 10 times in SL. Head with short, rounded snout; lower jaw not longer than upper jaw, not curved strongly upward; barbel slender and simple, its tip unmodified. Pectoral fin with 4–6 finrays, all about equal in length, unbranched distally, and without lumps of luminous material; pelvic fins low on body, their insertions close together near mid-ventral line; bases of dorsal and anal fins about equally long, their origins approximately opposed; no dorsal adipose fin.

Photophores (in almost evenly spaced groups): PV 16–18 in 2–4 groups, VAV 14–16 in 2–4 groups, OV 17–19 in 3-6 groups, VAL 13–15 in 2–3 groups, AC 8–10; 3 anterior orbital photophores (AOPs): AOP I below lower margin of eye, large (5–8% SL), sausage-shaped; AOP II along mid-ventral margin of AOP I, smaller, elongate; AOP III between anterior margins of orbit and AOP I, small (1.5–2.6% SL), bean-shaped; small (0.7–2.0% SL), nearly round PO well behind eye. AOPs I and III producing deep-red bioluminescence; AOPII producing a purple light.

Color of head and body black; no pale loop or line on sides.

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Ecology

Habitat

nektonic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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bathypelagic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Environment

bathypelagic; marine; depth range 660 - 4000 m (Ref. 74511)
  • Yang, J., Z. Huang, S. Chen and Q. Li 1996 The Deep-Water Pelagic Fishes in the Area form Nansha Islands To the Northeast part of South China Sea. Science Publication Company, Beijing. 190 pp. (Ref. 74511)
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Depth range based on 31 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 30 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 275 - 2150
  Temperature range (°C): 2.626 - 17.517
  Nitrate (umol/L): 5.294 - 36.323
  Salinity (PPS): 34.334 - 36.441
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.558 - 6.105
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.259 - 2.581
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.100 - 120.600

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 275 - 2150

Temperature range (°C): 2.626 - 17.517

Nitrate (umol/L): 5.294 - 36.323

Salinity (PPS): 34.334 - 36.441

Oxygen (ml/l): 1.558 - 6.105

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.259 - 2.581

Silicate (umol/l): 2.100 - 120.600
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Trophic Strategy

Pachystomias microdon and species of the closely related genera Malacosteus, and Aristostomias are unique among vertebrates in their ability to produce long-wave bioluminescence, their AOs producing emission maxima greater than 525 nm. It is hypothesized that these photophores cast a short field of long-wavelength light on their prey, species that are unable to perceive long-wave spectra due to their visual adaptations to the blue photoenvironment of the deep sea. With retinal pigments tuned to their own red luminescence, species of Aristostomias, Malacosteus, and Pachystomias are therefore afforded a stealthy “night-vision.”

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Pachystomias microdon

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachystomias microdon

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Wikipedia

Pachystomias microdon

Pachystomias microdon, the Smalltooth dragonfish, is a species of barbeled dragonfish found in the oceans at depths of from 660 to 4,000 metres (2,170 to 13,000 ft). This species grows to a length of 22.1 centimetres (8.7 in) SL. This species is the only known species in its genus.

References

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